Analysis of the Use of Electric Vehicles for Goods Deliveries & Cost and Environmental Benefit of Companies Moving to Electric Vehicles
TOPIC: Analysis of the Use of Electric Vehicles for Goods Deliveries & Cost and Environmental Benefit of Companies Moving to Electric Vehicles
-- Everything is in the M&P report attached, all the guidelines and outline required, should be followed thoroughly, step by step, below is detailed explanation. You can reuse some of the written bits in M&P report, all useful research papers I have included, please write in a formal dissertation style. Thanks.
--Introduction/project background/ literature review 20 pages
-describe the amount of vehicles used on L&T, what kinds of L&T activities, describe how the ICE is the majority of used vehicles on the market for the last decade, inserting numbers as many as can like percentages, data and graphs.
-Provide a picture of the Newcastle how and distinguish the different L&T activities, with different lines of different transportation activities, like red line is for the main focus food delivering, and the rest is like public transport, private transport, food stocks delivering to Tesco etc.
-Talk about how harmful the ICE powered vehicles are to the environment, how it contributes towards GHG emissions, what kind of emissions is involved, how it affects the environment and health of people
- Talk about the main manufactures of ICE vehicles, their company their name etc, where they produce it, are they ethical?
-focus on the food transport, like Deliveroo, in Newcastle-upon-Tyne UK and compare to UK, is the city orders a lot? How much does it contribute compared to UK daily or weekly food ordering?
-talk about the new technology vehicles like EVs enter the market, when they entered the market, what main manufactures are in the market, like Tesla etc. on focusing on 4 man vehicles, mopeds etc. vehicles that are suitable for food transport (Deliveroo) and onclude the types of ULEVS. Read the M&P.
-Identify and study in the literature relating the UK Government incentives, grants, and policies to its current decarbonise the road methods and recommend changes to the current Government’s decision making
-Provide the aim and objectives, scope of the dissertations, focus only on Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK, focus Deliveroo food L&T, 4 man vehicles for analysis.
--Calculations and discussion
--Operational and Technical Calculations 12 pages
-determine how much energy a BEV and a fuel cell car require to transport the cooked food and compared to ICE-powered cars counterparts. The size of the vehicle will be assumed to an average-sized electric car, the length and width of the electric car can be used to determine the vehicle weight and area.
-The fuel consumption requires to be modelled depending on the geometry of the road, whether it is extremely flat or requires mountainous driving. (Thomas Earl, 2018) The road is assumed to be flat with no surface deformation, no-slip tyres and driving at a constant speed. This is where the simplified road load equation can be applied which involves the forward motion overcoming 2 resistance forces including the aerodynamic drag and tyre rolling resistance. The formula below is the simplified road load equation.
-The road load can be converted into the fuel of electricity consumption depending on the type of the car, the energy efficiency of the powertrains will be reviewed from literature. ICE powered car will be determined by the ICE with its thermal efficiency and transmission. The lithium-ion battery will be determined the same as ICE with the addition of AC/DC rectification and inversion and battery operating efficiency. The fuel cell will be determined the same as lithium-ion with an addition of the fuel cell efficiency.
-The battery size or fuel cell can be obtained for electric cars, and it will be a direct influence on the payload capacity of the truck. The size of the battery or fuel cell can be obtained depending on the average size of the car, to provide sufficient fuel or electricity to the specific car. The fuel utilisation will be assumed at 90%, as the battery or fuel cell cannot be operated when completely flat, as this causes permanent damage to the cells. (Thomas Earl, 2018) The size can be obtained by works of literature of given example cars. For an ICE-powered car, the size of the combustion engine will be compared against the battery size or fuel cell size of the electric cars.
--Costing 10 pages
-The cost of the battery or fuel cell will be obtained from the literature of given examples of existing cars, this will be compared with ICE literature values. The cost of ICE against battery or fuel cell will be most of the difference in cost, as EVs tend to be at a higher rate of capital cost but lower in operating cost.
-Operations and maintenance of the specific car infrastructure wear will be studied and compared for only the first 100000 miles, this includes tires changing, brakes fixing etc. The ICE-powered car contains more
maintenance compared to EVs in the first 100000 miles, like maintenance towards oil change, automatic transmission fluid, plugs and wires and muffler.
-A study on fuel savings for each year will be constructed and studied to compare the cost of fuel for battery-electric cars, fuel cell cars and ICE-powered cars.
-An additional cost analysis will be constructed to estimate once battery-electric cars successfully adapt to the market, where it causes changes to the electricity network. The cost of individual recharging station set up will be estimated from literature values and compute the total cost for the necessary amount of recharging stations required with the coverage of a city, Newcastle-upon-Tyne will be used as an example.
- a diagram on the station within Newcastle upon tyne is requires, it is estimated is around 45miles square of land, the charging station coverage can be used as red dots on the map, the coverage required I do not know, literature support is required.
--Sustainability 10 pages
-A study on literature can provide examples on the difference of the cars’ noise level by using the equal-energy rule, or review the number of cars exceeded the Europe-wide noise in 2016 with a current limit of 74dB (Vehicle Certification Agency, 2016), and distinguish the category of which car types they belong to.
-GHG emission to the atmosphere, which is one of the major contributions to many environmental and health problems. The GHG emission can is calculated by the activity data which will consist of the quantitative measurement of the L&T activities multiplied by the emission factor issued by the UK Government annually on L&T activity.
-Investigate the environmental benefits of different types of ULE cars using existing major companies as examples, review on how they are adapting the new trend and what significant changes have been made towards the environment, people living close by and to staff workers. Establish changes to the UK Government on improvements towards the current policies to become more incentive towards the transition of electric cars for delivering goods
-- conclusion 1 page
All results above summarised, explain how EVs will be beneficial, all assumptions, all values are mentioned again in conclusion, number of charging stations, everything all values need to be provided here once again, polices that were recommended need to be brief described.
-conclusion part 2 4 page
Generalise the use of electric vehicles, explain the focus on this project is only on delivering food like Deliveroo, explain how much percentage is involve in the overall percentage of L&T activities.
And explain the cost and environmental benefits of companies moving to electric vehicles the cost of saving money in the long term, their reputation, how to improve the innovation, how the products attract the customers, how they need to include the befits on noise reduction and GHG reduction on using EVs etc.
--last 1 page
All the short terms used in the report, like ICE = internal combustion engine, EVs = electric vehicles, etc