Is There a Difference in Sense of Community Between Middle and High School Male and Female Students in an International School in Saudi Arabia?
The public sector was found to fall short in meeting quantitative and qualitative demands for higher education. The demand on higher education has been beyond the capacity of the public sector. Stakeholders perceive differences between public and private higher education.
Unfortunately, educational philosophy favors the gender binary, and society avoids change with a constant implementation of institutionalized norms. Today, Saudi Arabian women are relentlessly pursuing higher education; their transformational efforts would be even more worthwhile if the government was inclined to help them.
As Levy has written (1986a), the status of legal ownership does not reveal how the institution actually functions. He has shown that in many cases private higher education institutions are found to be less autonomous than their public counterparts, which are completely funded by the government. Pachuashvili (2011) also explains how in a post-communist setting, legally defined non-profit and profit-making private institutions can hardly be differentiated as both of them rely mainly on tuition fees, and have a market orientation.
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Barrie, S. C. (2004). 'A research based approach to generic graduate attributes policy'. Higher Education Research and Development, 23 (3), 261-275.
Levy, D. (1986a). Higher education and the state in Latin America : private challenges to public dominance. Chicago X London: University of Chicago Press.
Niblock, T. and Malik, M. (2007). The political economy of Saudi Arabia: Taylor & Francis.
Pachuashvili, M. (2011). 'Governmental Policies and Their Impact on Private HigherEducation Development in Post-Communist Countries: Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Georgia, 1990²2005'. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 13 (4), 397-410.