What Is the Culture of Poverty Argument, and How Does That Connect to Functionalist’s Emphasis on Merit?
According to structural-functionalists, stratification and inequality are inevitable and beneficial to society. The layers of society, conceptualized as a pyramid, are the inevitable sorting of unequal people. The layering is useful because it ensures that the best people are at the top and those who are less worthy are further down the pyramid, and therefore have less power and are given fewer rewards than the high quality people at the top.
If you are in need of some facts to include in your next five paragraph essay on the theory of the culture of poverty, then consider the list of facts below. These are a diverse representation of many aspects of the concept, covering not only information about the author and initial public reception, but the academic criticism it has received since its introduction, its historical influence in political legislation, and its modern revival among welfare reforms. These facts should help you to substantiate your claims in the body paragraphs of your next work:It is still debated among among scholars, sociologists and government policy makers as to whether poverty comes from economic, social, and political conditions or whether it comes from behavior of poor people themselves. One attempt to better answer this question was made by Oscar Lewis, an anthropologist who published a theory in 1959, called the culture of poverty. This social theory is the one which expounds upon the cycle of poverty idea and in spite of being harshly criticized after its publication, has intermittently influenced welfare politics and social support services across the United States. Further scrutiny revealed that this particular theory was flawed. sociologists and anthropologists have determined that this theory suffers from methodological fallacies including a reliance on the assumption that behavior only comes from preferred cultural values.
Critics say this explanation ignores discrimination and other problems in American society and exaggerates the degree to which the poor and nonpoor do in fact hold different values (Ehrenreich, 2012; Holland, 2011; Schmidt, 2012). Regarding the latter point, they note that poor employed adults work more hours per week than wealthier adults and that poor parents interviewed in surveys value education for their children at least as much as wealthier parents. These and other similarities in values and beliefs lead critics of the individualistic explanation to conclude that poor people’s poverty cannot reasonably be said to result from a culture of poverty.As Rank (Rank, 2011) summarizes this view, “American poverty is largely the result of failings at the economic and political levels, rather than at the individual level…In contrast to [the individualistic] perspective, the basic problem lies in a shortage of viable opportunities for all Americans.” Rank points out that the US economy during the past few decades has created more low-paying and part-time jobs and jobs without benefits, meaning that Americans increasingly find themselves in jobs that barely lift them out of poverty, if at all. Sociologist Fred Block and colleagues share this critique of the individualistic perspective: “Most of our policies incorrectly assume that people can avoid or overcome poverty through hard work alone.
In conclusion, many scholars concede a culture of poverty does exist, but they also say it exists because it helps the poor cope daily with the structural effects of being poor. If these effects lead to a culture of poverty, they add, poverty then becomes self-perpetuating. If poverty is both cultural and structural in origin, these scholars say, efforts to improve the lives of people in the “other America” must involve increased structural opportunities for the poor and changes in some of their values and practices.
Rank, M. R. (2011). Rethinking American poverty. Contexts, 10(Spring), 16–21.
Duncan, C. M. (2000). Worlds apart: Why poverty persists in rural America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Ehrenreich, B. (2012, March 15). What “other America”? Salon.com. Retrieved from http://www.salon.com/2012/03/15/the_truth_about_the_poor/.