The History of the Failures and Successes in Past Efforts to Integrate the U.S. Intelligence Community With the Law Enforcement Community
In July of that year the Congress responded by establishing the Contingent Fund of Foreign Intercourse (also known as the Secret Service Fund) and authorizing $40,000 for this purpose. Within three years, the fund had grown to $1 million, about 12% of the Government's budget at the time. While the Congress required the President to certify the amounts spent, it also allowed him to conceal the purposes and recipients of the funds. (In 1846, this latter provision was challenged by the House of Representatives, but President Polk, citing national security grounds of protection of sources, refused to turn over more specific information on the use of the Fund to the Congress.) For the most part, however, the early part of the twentieth century was marked not by an expanded use of intelligence for foreign policy purposes, but by an expansion of domestic intelligence capabilities. The Justice Department's Bureau of Investigation (the forerunner of the FBI) was established in 1908 out of concern that Secret Service agents were spying on members of Congress. By 1916, the Bureau had grown from 34 agents focusing primarily on banking issues to 300 agents with an expanded charter that included internal security, Mexican border smuggling activities, neutrality violations in the Mexican revolution, and Central American unrest. After war broke out in Europe, but before the United States joined the Allied cause, the Bureau turned its attention to activities of German and British nationals within our borders.
Having to make the assessment anyway, because some reading of a situation is needed, is the problem as well as the challenge.
Leaders must understand and nurture cultural change that emphasizes a responsibility for providing information—not just for sharing it. They must also communicate to their subordinates a willingness to accept risk in sharing data and must deemphasize data ownership. These steps, along with clear guidelines, inter-community training, the exchange of lessons learned, and the effective use of technology, can open doors of cooperation that have been closed for too long.
Central Intelligence Bulletin, 5 October 1973, quoted by Fifty Years of Informing Policy , p. 206 .
Emile A. Nakhleh , Fifty Years of Informing Policy , pp. 205 – 207 .
Richard Shryock , “ The Intelligence Community Post-Mortem Program, 1973–1975“ , Studies in Intelligence , Vol. 21 , No. 3 , Fall 1997 , pp. 15 – 22 .