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Factors Leading to the Reformation Such as Luther 95 Thesis

In the sixteenth century, the declining power of the papacy was accompanied by a rise in nationalism. A spiritual hunger among the masses was accompanied by a growing demand to read scripture, which was becoming more available thanks to the printing press and scholars who were able to read it in the original language and translate it into the vernacular. The teachings of scripture were seen to clash with the authority of the Roman Catholic church. This came to a head on October 31, 1513 when Luther nailed 95 Theses to the door of Wittenberg Cathedral. Known as the Reformation this movement was spread though other influential teachers such as Calvin in Geneva and Zwingli in Zurich. Politics and real reform combined to birth the English Reformation. Radical Reformers wanted to take the church even further away from the trappings of Rome and found themselves persecuted by both Catholics and the new Protestants. The Roman Catholic Church’s response, the Counter-Reformation, or Catholic Reformation, culminated at the Councils of Trent (1545-1563) and was an entrenched, militant response to the Protestant Reformation, the effects from which are still felt today.

Briefly discuss some of the factors that led up to the Reformation, including key personalities and spiritual movements that influenced the Reformation (Shelley, 2013, Chapter 23).

Briefly discuss the role and influence of Luther, of Calvin, and of Zwingli. Where did Luther and Calvin agree? Where did they differ? How did Luther and Zwingli differ? How did Zwingli react to the Anabaptists? (Shelley, 2013, Chapters 24, 25-26).

Briefly discuss the English Reformation and the birth of the Church of England, including the Act of Supremacy; and the Catholic Reformation, also known as the Counter-Reformation, including the Councils of Trent (Shelley, 2013, Chapters 27-28).

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