A Mixed-Methods Study of the Health-Related Masculine Values Among Young Canadian Men
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Selflessness was characterized by caring for and helping others.
With regard to this, our findings might improve the interpretation of epidemiological data in our particular context. In addition, the approach taken in this article, by directing attention to how men perform ‘manhood acts’, may facilitate awareness both of the complexity of the links between men, masculinity, and health, and of the norms, power dynamics, and practices that perpetuate health inequalities. We consider that the health sector can play a key role in the processes of social engineering to address these disparities. In this sense, it is important that health professionals are as responsive to the singular needs of men (and women) as they are to the gender-based barriers faced by them with regard to their health. In the same way, our findings suggest that although the practitioners have an important role in promoting male access and use of health care services, this engagement should go beyond simply giving attention to preventive physical health and lifestyle advice. It should address wider issues related to gender norms and social practices that perpetuate inequalities; that is, promoting responsible fathering and parenting, engaging men as caregivers, addressing gender-based violence, and so on. Thus, in order to increase the effectiveness of programmes and interventions that promote the questioning of attitudes and behaviours related to ‘unhealthy masculinity’, policies must facilitate the integrated development of gender that is mainstreamed into different social settings, without forgetting the health care system.
Overall, the work confirms that restricted masculine roles and gender role conflict contributes to negative psychological health for men and boys (O’Neil, 2008).Characterized by different methodologies, a core distinction between social constructionist and socialization approaches has been the debate over masculinity as an external relational social construct versus an interior trait or individual characteristic. Despite this ontological and epistemological divide, empirically there has been consensus among social constructionist and socialization men’s health researchers that masculinity is contextual and fluid rather than being entirely good or bad for the health of men.
Study findings are discussed detailing how the evaluation of specific health-related masculine values in subgroups of men might advance masculinities-focused men's health research and inform the next generation of targeted gendersensitized services.
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