Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease
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Even people who smoke fewer than five cigarettes a day may show signs of early CVD. The risk of CVD increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and when smoking continues for many years.
And how does this affect people who smoke? Smokers have twice the risk of heart attack as nonsmokers. Smoking attributes to One-fifth of the annual 1,000,000 deaths from CVD. Surveillance data indicate that an estimated 1,000,000 young people become "regular" smokers each year. Smoking and CVD Smoking adds to the artery-clogged process. It is know that smoking is a contributing factor to CVD, but why? What does smoking actually do to help in CVD? First of all, smoking overworks the heart and reduces its oxygen supply. It also makes clots more likely to form in blood vessels and increases the risk of potentially fatal changes in the heartbeat (Better Health Channel, 2004). Other damages that smoking contributes to CVD is: Causes immediate and long term increases in blood pressure and heart rate, as well as changes the properties of blood vessels and blood cells—allowing cholesterol and other fatty substances to build up (Holy Name Health Manual). Second-Hand Smoke So you say you your safe because you don’t smoke. Not always true. Many of us know of someone who smokes and may be living with that person or even just eating at a restaurant with them. Second-hand smoke is basically the air that non-smokers breathe in while in the same areas of smokers.
Hazard ratios were also higher at the first and second five-year follow-ups (3.73 to 10.58 and 1.95 to 2.48, respectively) than those at later follow-ups. The substantial cardiovascular risk attributable to involuntary exposure to cigarette smoke (USDHHS 2006) and the practice in most CVD studies of not excluding from the control group persons who had secondhand smoke exposure have resulted in underestimation, in many research reports, of the effects of active smoking compared with no exposure to cigarette smoke.
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