Define Organizational Problems, Personal Conflict, Medication Distribution in Big Hospitals
Leadership has been described as the behavior of an individual when directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal. The key aspects of the leadership role involves influencing group activities and coping with change. A difficulty when considering leadership of healthcare professionals is that most theories were not developed within a healthcare context but were usually developed for the business setting and then applied to healthcare. Published researches provide little evidence that such leadership initiatives are associated with improvements in patient care or organizational outcomes when applied in the healthcare setting.
In health care, as in other industries, some workflows are designed, while others arise organically and evolve. The systems and methods by which organizations accomplish specific goals differ dramatically. Some organizational workflows seem more straightforward than others. Most often, when workflow processes are looked at in isolation, the processes appear quite logical (and even efficient) in acting to accomplish the end goal. It is in the interaction among the processes that complexities arise. Some of these interactions hide conflicts in the priorities of different roles in an organization, for example, what the nursing team is accountable to versus the physician team and its schedule. Organizations also adapt workflows to suit the evolving environment. Over time, reflecting on organizational workflows may show that some processes are no longer necessary, or can be updated and optimized. The design of good organizational workflow is not simply about improving efficiency. Workflow processes are maps that direct the care team how to accomplish a goal. A good workflow will help accomplish those goals in a timely manner, leading to care that is delivered more consistently, reliably, safely, and in compliance with standards of practice. An excellent workflow process can accommodate variations that inevitably arise in health care through interaction with other workflow processes, as well as environmental factors such as workload, staff schedules, and patient load. Health services researchers have explored workflow issues from several angles, including mapping processes from other industries into health care. Literature about workflow can be found in several different domains, such as quality improvement, technology implementation, and process improvements. One common thread throughout the literature is the importance of interdisciplinary involvement in all aspects of workflow analysis and implementation.
Today health care settings face more challenges as compare to past decades because of competition, downsizing, restructuring, cost control and new technology; these changes are likely to develop conflict in organization. There are many strategies to resolve conflict effectively to minimize its negative impacts. Organization and organizational leaders typically play a role in resolving conflict among the employees. Romer et al. proposed a research model of “Leaders’ Third-Party Conflict Management Behaviors” which is neutral and resolving the conflict in three ways, which are problem solving, forcing, and avoiding (Römer M, Rispens S, Giebels E, 2012). Problem solving is to identify the concerns of both parties and to find a suitable solution which addresses their concerns. Forcing is the imposing of decision by leader to resolve the conflict. Avoiding is the strategy when the leader does not want to involve in the conflict. These three components are suggested to resolve interpersonal conflict among coworkers. Problem solving behavior allowing the individuals to show their goals and point of view, they take it positively as the leader showing interest in their concerns. Hence, when the employees perceive their importance; so, their feelings of controlling the stressful situation enhance, and therefore, negative impact of conflict decreases. This indicates participatory leadership style in which employees are given the opportunity to participate in the decision making process, which minimizing feeling of stress. According to Martin involving subordinates in resolving the problems leads to team spirit, which produces job satisfaction, cost effectiveness and better solutions (Martin AJ, Dowson M. 2009). Furthermore, if there is conflict, the authorized leader should ensure that it is fruitfully resolved. In contrast, forcing behavior has negative impact on employee but based on leader’s interest, and would increase stress rather than resolve the conflict in healthy way. However, conflict may be resolved to some extent as the employees expected the leader to be authoritative and obliged to obey. Furthermore, avoiding behavior may cause frustration in the employees because the leader fails to resolve the conflict and thus conflict will be escalated. Avoiding strategy is better but if the employees perceive it positively, otherwise as in the scenario the situation was worsened.
As can be seen, conflict is inevitable in nature. It is a significant issue within health care organizations all over the world. To overcome interpersonal conflict in the health care setting requires accurate knowledge and skills for health care professionals to reduce the occurrence of conflicts. This paper has implications for nurse leaders and organizations who seek to manage conflict among employees to reduce its negative consequences on working environment and organization productivity. Learning to manage conflict may help nurses feel more job satisfaction and obviously have positive impacts on patient care. In addition, nurses are more concerns how they are treated. If they are treated with respect and dignity by colleagues and manager and are working with positive relationship and morale, they will experience a positive working environment with less conflict.
Römer M, Rispens S, Giebels E, et al. A Helping hand? The moderating role of leaders’ Conflict management behavior on the conflict-stress relationship of employees. Negotiation Journal. 2012;28(3):253–277.
Martin AJ, Dowson M. Interpersonal relationships, motivation, engagement, and achievement: Yields for theory, Current issues, and educational practice. Review of Educational Research. 2009;79(1):327–365.
Johansen ML. Keeping the peace: Conflict management strategies for nurse managers. Nursing Management. 2012;43(2):50–54.