What Is Blood Pressure and What Are the Ways the Body Regulates It
In this article, we will consider the short term and long term control of blood pressure, as well as some of the problems when control of blood pressure is lost.
When the receptors recognise a change in the blood pressure falls, the kidneys produce a substance called renin, which when undergoes difficult changes may lead to water and salt retention by the kidneys and the emergence of angiotensin two, which causes vasoconstriction and eventually causes a raised blood pressure (Greenstein, 2009). In emergency situations when a patient has high blood pressure, they are usually given sodium nitroprusside which is a strong vasodilator. It is used to treat emergency hypertension and severe cardiac failure. It expands both arterial and venous blood vessels, and consequently a reduced peripheral resistance and venous return (Greenstein, 2009). Ace inhibitors also help to reduce blood pressure, however, if a patient is taking this drug with diuretics the initial dose should be low because it can lead to a sudden fall in blood pressure (Greenstein, 2009). ACE inhibitors should not be given to pregnant women as it can lead to feotus damage. When the body’s blood pressure is too high (greater than 120/80mmHg), the baroreceptors reflex increases which activate the parasympathetic stimulations of the heart, which leads to a fall in cardiac output. Sympathetic stimulations in the peripheral arterioles will fall leading to vasodilation (the relaxation of the walls of blood vessels) and a consequent fall in blood pressure (Martín-Vázquez and Reyes del Paso, 2010) is achieved.
The more the plaque and damage increases, the narrower (smaller) the insides of the arteries become — raising blood pressure and starting a vicious circle that further harms your arteries, heart and the rest of your body. This can ultimately lead to other conditions ranging from arrhythmia to heart attack and stroke.
Greenstein, B., 2009. Trounce’s Clinical Pharmacology For Nurses, Eighteenth Edition. ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinurgh London New York Philadelphia St Louis Sydney Toronto.
Kario, D.K., 2015. Essential manual of 24 hour blood pressure management. Wiley & sons Ltd.
Kougias, P., Weakley, S.M., Yao, Q., Lin, P.H., Chen, C., 2010. Arterial baroreceptors in the management of systemic hypertension. Med. Sci. Monit. Int. Med. J. Exp. Clin. Res. 16, RA1-8.
Martín-Vázquez, M., Reyes del Paso, G.A., 2010. Physical training and the dynamics of the cardiac baroreflex: A comparison when blood pressure rises and falls. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 76, 142–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2010.03.004