What Is Blood Pressure and What Are the Ways the Body Regulates It
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As such, our bodies must maintain control over our blood pressure to keep it at a normal level. In this article, we will consider the short term and long term control of blood pressure, as well as some of the problems when control of blood pressure is lost.
Most homeostatic mechanisms work to decrease the stimulus, i.e. form a negative feedback system (except blood clotting, which has a positive feedback system).So if an increase in, for example, blood pressure is detected, homeostasis will act to reduce this back to within the normal range. An important parameter that must be kept within the normal range for biological health is blood pressure.Every cell in our body requires a constant supply of nutrients, such as glucose and oxygen, as well as removal of waste products, such as carbon dioxide, to prevent a toxic build up.To maintain this constant exchange of material, we rely on blood to circulate in the transport network of blood vessels and interact with cells in organs and tissues.If this does not occur at a sufficient rate cells suffer hypoxia, lack of energy substrates and the toxic effects of metabolic waste build up, which leads to poor function and eventually cell death.Therefore, it is obviously crucial to maintain blood flow at a sufficient rate through the systemic tissues and lungs.
When the body’s blood pressure is too high (greater than 120/80mmHg), the baroreceptors reflex increases which activate the parasympathetic stimulations of the heart, which leads to a fall in cardiac output. Sympathetic stimulations in the peripheral arterioles will fall leading to vasodilation (the relaxation of the walls of blood vessels) and a consequent fall in blood pressure (Martín-Vázquez and Reyes del Paso, 2010) is achieved.
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