How Animal Have Conversation
Evolution may select certain birds that are able to produce mimicking mobbing calls and allow birds able to produce more effective alarm calls to survive, but there is also a neurological learning component from other birds. Also, "unlike children, who can learn any language they are exposed to, the musical language of most birds is somewhat constrained by their genetic heritage. Given a choice of two songs -- their own and that of another, even a closely related species -- they will learn their own. but, if exposed only to the song of another species, they will learn a version of it" .
The scientists report that there are over 6,900 distinct languages in the modern world. Nevertheless, David Lightfoot, a linguist at Georgetown University in Washington, points out that because of human ability to speak and our anatomy of the vocal apparatus, only one language should be considered: human language (Hirshon, date unknown). It is in organized and complex form, structured by different sets of grammatical rules. Language is as important as breathing. It helps human beings to socialise, learn about past cultures and progenitors, develop themselves and pass the knowledge through the next generations. In fact, it is crucially important for speakers to have a knowledge of the grammar of a spoken language. As far as the nature of language is concerned, many philosophers and scientists have debated this question for a long time, presenting contrasting ideas and concepts. Although a number of different theories have been displayed so far, there is still no direct evidence which tells us how the language has originated. It is certain that divine theory is one of the oldest thesis, suggesting the language as the gift of the God to mankind. Judeo Christians believe that Adam was given the power to name all the things that the world consists of. God communicated with the first people in a language that was easily understood by their brains. In terms of divine creation, many experiments have been carried out since the Ancient Times. For instance, an Egyptian pharaoh, Psammetichus, decided to place two infants in the mountains, isolating them from society. They were only in close contact to mute servants. Surprisingly, after several years they were able to say a word meaning ‘bread’ in a language which had not existed for a long time. Another interesting examination was carried out by James IV of Scotland thousands years after Psammetichus. Indeed, he repeated the same experiment, getting significant results: isolated children were capable of speaking Hebrew. Therefore, James IV formulated a thesis that Hebrew was the language Adam and Eve used in order to communicate in Eden.
When it comes to the differences, human’s language have fixed amount of sound components called phonemes. Animal on the other hand, have a communication system that is considered to be closed. They are not able to create new vocal signs to communicate experience or unusual events. Human language is independent of context while animal communication is typically context connected (Yule, George, 2010). Communication from an animal is just a reply to motivation in the instant environment like the existence of threat or food. However, both animals and humans share some comparable features. In the sphere of body facial gestures and body language, a person could clearly observe similarities in the way humans and animals communicate. For instance, a lot of facial gestures in humans are also observed in monkeys. Facial movements that humans create while communicating (frowns, grins) could possibly reach all the way back to the prehistoric times where man and ape had a particularly extensive interaction. In conclusion, humans and animals clearly have some similarities and differences that help them communicate. The remarkable thing is that the communication among humans and animals does bring an understanding, thus stopping disorder and confusion among species (Yule, George, 2011).
Altogether, animal communication is any behavior on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behavior of another animal. Body language like some gesture and action is a common way that animal communicates with others. Combined with other body language, in a specific context, many gestures such as yawns, direction of vision, and so on all transmit meaning. As with human beings, who may smile or hug or stand a particular way for multiple reasons, many animals reuse gestures as well.
Yule, George. The Study of Language. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Yule, Gillian Brown & George. Discourse Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press , 2011.