Themes of Gender, Sexuality, Race, and Class in "Moonlight"
The game itself might be seen as a metonym for this impression of toxic masculinitywhereby some are uplifted for their ability to dominate, which is inextricably bound with the ability to suppress. As one who is victimized for not being ‘hard' enough, Chiron's only options are to ‘stay down' or to endure more abuse. It is this very urge to dominate that eventually sends both Chiron and Kevin to prison, which is a testament to its toxicity. Through thesedepictions of physical violence, Jenkins allows us to contemplate the glorified notions ofmasculinity and its internalization into the psyche of adolescent boys.
On the same day, Chiron stays with Juan and his girlfriend Teresa. The day after, they take him back to his house. Here we realize that Chiron’s mother Paula is a drug dealer. In the next stage of the film, Chiron is represented as a withdrawn teenager. This time he is being bullied by a classmate, named Terrel. On the other hand, we realize that Chiron is still meeting Teresa who lives alone since Juan's death. This time Paula is represented as being a sex worker in relation with her drug addiction. One night Chiron and his friend Kevin meet at the beach and after a while they start to kiss. It is also in the second stage of the film when Chiron smashes a chair into Terrel's back in the classroom. In the final stage, Chiron is represented as an adult who deals drugs. The war on drugs policies and media representations in the US-America, which targets African American population have conveyed the message that black people and criminality are inextricably related (Welch 2007, pp. 280-283). In parallel to this, Moonlight reflects this stereotypical link between drugs and black population. Nevertheless, there is an important progressive point in Moonlight, which is worth being considered: it is a film with an all-black cast. That is to say, it offers new possibilities for diverse representations. Even though the film confirms the stereotype of black people of lower class as using and selling drugs, it also represents middle-class characters such as black teachers and black police officers throughout the film, which normalizes the idea that African American population is heterogeneous (Willig, C 2008).
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2016, Results from the 2015 national survey on drug use and health: national findings, viewed 25 August 2017, < http://www. oas. samhsa. gov/nsduh/2k5nsduh/2k5Results. pdf. >
Thornham, S 1997, Passionate Detachments: An Introduction to Feminist Film Theory, Arnold, London; New York.
Watercutter, A 2015, ‘Tangerine Is Amazing—But Not Because of How They Shot It’, Wired,
Willig, C 2008, Introducing qualitative research methods in psychology, Maidenhead, England: McGraw Hill.
Welch, K 2007, ‘Black criminal stereotypes and racial profiling’, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, vol. 23 no. 3, pp. 276-288