Would the Idea of Structuring Society Around Leisure Instead of Work Ever Be an Option in American Society?
Within five years, the city lost 50,000 jobs and $1.3 billion in manufacturing wages. The effect was so severe that a term was coined to describe the fallout: regional depression.
The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), formed in 1905, also included unskilled workers in its ranks. In this period of labor unrest, many members in these groups were politically radical, supporting anarchism, communism, and socialism as tools of change. Groups such as these would organize strikes and boycotts in order to get management to acquiesce to their demands. In their early years, however, these labor groups were rarely successful, as the capitalists often resorted to government support to enforce their policies on laborers. The Pullman Strike was one such instance where the government squelched a railway workers' strike by attaching mail cars to all the trains and then invoking the law that made it illegal to impede the movement of mail. Instances such as this caused many to see the excesses of American business and the need for reform. In what was known as the Progressive Era, roughly from 1900 to World War I, reformers sought to improve the lot of the underprivileged of America by rectifying perceived wrongs. President Theodore Roosevelt supported regulation of big business and sometimes supported workers' rights against the interests of industry. During Woodrow Wilson's presidency, Progressive principles were furthered when statutes were passed for an eight-hour workday for railroad workers, workers' compensation, and regulation of child labor.
Decrease in work–life balance has been linked to higher unwanted turnover, lower physical and psychological well-being, lower productivity, greater stress-related ailments, and the like. The Waste is immeasurable (Lewis J. Lone mothers, 1997). Myth of an ideal employee perpetuated by the society creates intense time pressure, or what some refer to as a time famine, which can lead to stress and job dissatisfaction, possibly creating work–family conflict. The male model of work prescribes an ideal employee who is male, full-time, and continuously at work from the end of the education, fully committed to the organization, and without any responsibilities outside of work. This model is no longer valid and has become outdated. In addition, we can also observe a change in attitudes toward what constitutes a successful career, especially among the newer generations. The current generation started to question old assumptions about how work is done, how to show commitment, where and when to work, and how to advance in the company. Along with having a highly paid job, they strive for a more “complete” life that includes both a successful professional and a personal life. Organizations that monopolize the time of employees challenge the ability of employees to perform well in other important roles within the family and the community.
The themes that have just been introduced are explored more fully throughout this text, as the historical development of recreation and play and the evolution of the present-day leisure-service system are described. Throughout, issues related to the social implications of recreation and leisure and to the role of recreation and park professionals are fully discussed, along with the challenges that face practitioners in this field in the twenty-first century.
Allen TD, Herst DE, Bruck CS, Sutton M. Consequences associated with work-to-family conflict: A review and agenda for future research. J Occup Health Psychol. 2000;5:278–308.
Greenhaus JH, Beutell NJ. Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Acad Manage Rev. 1985;10:76–88.
Kossek EE, Lambert SJ. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2005. Work and Life Integration: Organizational, Cultural, and Individual Perspectives.
Lewis J. Lone mothers: The British case. In: Lewis J, editor. Lone Mothers in European Welfare Regimes-Shifting Policy Logics. London: Jessica Kingsley; 1997.
Bailyn L, Harrington M. Redesigning work for work-family integration. Community Work Fam. 2004;7:197–208.