Maternity Leave: How Is It Being Addressed on Either a Local, National, or International Level?
Yet, policy choices must be made to refine and implement a national program of paid family leave. These choices include who should be covered, how high should benefit amounts be, how long should they be paid, how should benefits be funded and administered, and should job protections be expanded?
The same country, however, could spend roughly the same amount of its resources and design a parental leave policy that promoted a more equal distribution of child care responsibilities. Instead of guaranteeing mothers 12 months of fully paid parental leave, the country could provide mothers six months of fully paid leave and fathers six months of (non-transferable) fully paid leave. This alternative system would provide direct financial incentives for fathers to assume half (or at least some portion) of the infant-care responsibilities, even though, at first glance, the new system appears to be less generous for women. The terminology used to describe various types of leave across 21 countries varies widely (and is further complicated by the need to translate these national terms into English). Throughout this report, we use "parental leave" as an umbrella term that includes leaves for maternity, pregnancy, paternity, birth, adoption, and longer-term care of young children. In many European countries, "parental leave" is used to refer to leave granted to mothers or fathers for longer-term care of young children after an initial spell of what is usually referred to "maternity" or "paternity" leave. In some discussions of European leave policies, where the context demands, we will also use "parental leave"in this second, narrower sense.
For example, we may discuss leave-taking during the child’s second month, when we really mean the second month following the birth month. Second, we will miss some short leaves that do not span the survey reference week. This is particularly relevant for men who generally take minimal amounts of leave. Thus, our estimates will accurately indicate the percentage of time parents are off work during a specified month, rather than the probability of their being on leave during that month. Three additional issues deserve mention. First, as discussed, we only have data on fathers married to and residing with the child’s mother.Although we cannot be certain, it seems probable that such fathers will take more leave than those not living with the mother (and possibly more than fathers cohabiting but not married), so that our estimates are likely to overstate the average amount of paternity leave used. Second, changes in the CPS preclude us from identifying cohabiters in a consistent manner. Third, we match individuals and families across survey months using the household identifier, household number, and personal line number (as recommended by the CPS user’s guide), with information on the month in the sample used to match families across survey months (Chatterji P, Markowitz S., 2005). Average match rates were 85 percent or higher within three-month periods (e.g., the birth month merged with two months prior to or after birth), and about 50 percent for periods more than six months apart (e.g., birth month merged with 10 months prior to the birth).
Many countries also make leave available to adoptive parents. Mothers and fathers in a number of countries enjoy leave policies instead of or beyond legislated provisions through collective bargaining agreements.
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