Are There Any Disparities Between Men and Women and How They're Affected by Body Image Content on Social Media?
Facebook, Youtube, Instagram, and Snapchat were the most frequently used social media platforms. A pattern of small-sized and positive associations emerged between social media use and body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, and thoughts about using anabolic steroids. Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat evidenced the strongest associations. The associations of social media use with both muscularity dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms were stronger for image-centric social media platforms (e.g., Instagram) than nonimage-centric platforms (e.g., Wordpress); no differences were observed for body fat dissatisfaction, height dissatisfaction, or thoughts about using anabolic steroids. Previously documented associations of social media use with body dissatisfaction and related variables among women and girls appear to generalize to sexual minority men. Social media platforms that more centrally involve imagery may be of greater concern than nonimage-centric platforms. Additional research with sexual minority men is needed to elucidate the distinctions between adaptive and maladaptive social media use in the context of body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, and anabolic steroid use.
The most common mental problems are behavioural, emotional, and hyperkinetic disorders. Among these illnesses, disordered eating behaviours are rapidly increasing in a short time, especially among young women. These disordered attitudes are defined as afflictions in which people suffer severe disruption in their eating behaviours, thoughts and emotions (Bailey A.P., Parker A.G., 2014). The people who suffer from these complaints are usually preoccupied with food and weight. In this sense, disordered eating is used to describe a range of irregular eating behaviours that may or may not warrant a diagnosis of a specific disordered eating attitude. These disorders usually occur in women in their twenties or during adolescence. People who suffer these disorders usually present altered attitudes, behaviours, weight perception and physical appearance Moreover, disordered eating behaviours or attitudes are defined as unhealthy or maladaptive eating behaviours, such as restricting or binging and/or purging. These behaviours are not categorized as an eating disorder, though they are considered a phase of diagnosed eating disorders (Telch C.F., Pratt E.M., 1997). Although these diseases have a crucial psychobiological component, social and cultural factors have a significant influence. Among these factors, advertising has been described as an internalizing or normalizing means to spread unrealistic beauty ideals.
The current paper aims to address this gap by surveying and extending existing theory, using a critical review methodology, to derive a provisional theoretical model that explains how social media influence body image and weight and shape control behaviours of sexual minority men in particular. Our proposed model serves as an extension to the transactional model of social media and body image concerns, which includes additions to individual vulnerability factors (perceived self-discrepancy, gender nonconformity, minority stress) and psychosocial mediating processes (sexual objectification, sociocultural processes, online disinhibition).
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