Forensic Genetics in Indonesia STR
However, a research on human genome found all Indonesians are migrants. Indonesian people are a mix of different genetic groups of Homo sapiens who travelled from Africa in waves spanning tens of thousands years via different routes to the archipelago.
Next, samples are collected using a sampling kit (either commercial or assembled in the laboratory) and transported to the laboratory under proper conditions. An accurate description of the biological nature of the sample is usually included, and a unique code must be assigned to each collected sample. If the request is part of a legal procedure, not only traceability but also the strict maintenance of the chain of custody (chronological documentation of the evidence) are key issues.
Despite some difficulties, current forensic genetics is progressively incorporating the analysis of nonhuman genetic material to a greater extent. The analysis of this material—including other animal species, plants, or microorganisms—is now broadly used, providing ancillary evidence in criminalistics in cases such as animal attacks, trafficking of species, bioterrorism and biocrimes, and identification of fraudulent food composition, among many others. Here, we explore how nonhuman forensic genetics is being revolutionized by the increasing variety of genetic markers, the establishment of faster, less error-burdened and cheaper sequencing technologies, and the emergence and improvement of models, methods, and bioinformatics facilities (Dufresnes C, Jan C, Bienert F, 2017). It is surprising that most of the life span of the discipline has been devoted to human genetics, since a number of disagreements on questions intrinsically related to nonhuman materials always existed and, even when strictly human issues are at stake (such as the identification of a murderer), evidence from nonhuman sources can be crucial or are just the sole type of available evidence.
Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles.
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