How Do the Scale and Intensity of Contemporary Impacts Compare With the Impacts of Early Agriculture and Urbanization?
On the other hand, higher consumption of fertilizer, state government expenditure on agriculture, production of major crops (wheat, maize, jowar, and bajra), rural female employment in agriculture, and rural literacy rate have had a positive impact on urbanization.
There are different possibilities and methods for such assessment. To stress the interactions between society and the environment, the DPSIR framework approach is used for analyzing and assessing the influence of agriculture on land use and environment with emphasis on Slovakia.With the growing world population the requirements are grown to cover the food demand. Human expansion throughout the world caused that agriculture is a dominant form of land management globally, and agricultural ecosystems cover nearly 40% of the terrestrial surface of the Earth. Agricultural ecosystems are interlinked with rural areas where more than 3 billion people live, almost half of the world's population. Roughly 2.5 billion of these rural people derive their livelihoods from agriculture. Thus, population and land‐use trends are considered to be the main driving forces for agriculture. Besides these driving forces, EEA further distinguished the so‐called external and internal driving forces originating from market trends, technological and social changes, as well as the policy framework. For many economies, especially those of developing countries, agriculture can be an important engine—driving force—of economic growth. Approximately three‐quarters of the world's agricultural value added is generated in developing countries where agriculture constitutes the backbone of the economy. But not only in the developing countries but also in the developed countries agriculture has always been the precursor to the rise of industry and services.
The consequences of this are evident in most cities in Asia and Africa and many in Latin America and the Caribbean—the high proportion of the population living in very poor and overcrowded conditions in informal settlements or tenements lacking adequate provision for water, sanitation, drainage, healthcare, schools and the rule of law. This is evident even in cities where there has been very rapid economic growth. The fact that half of Mumbai's or Nairobi's population live in ‘slums and squatter settlements’ is more to do with political choices than a lack of resources. Little more than a century ago, most ‘slums’ in Europe and North America had living conditions, and infant and child mortality rates that were as bad as the worst-governed cities in low-income nations today. Here too there were problems of under-nutrition, lack of education and serious problems with exploitation, as well as deeply entrenched discrimination against women in almost all aspects of life. It was social and political reforms that dramatically reduced these. And social and political reforms are addressing these in many middle-income nations today—as in Thailand, Brazil and Tunisia where housing and living conditions, basic service provision and nutritional standards have improved considerably for large sections of the low-income urban population.
The demand for expensive animal products grows. These forces have resulted in a dramatic escalation of solid waste production in cities and on farms. Urbanization and transformed agriculture have exploded the organic matter cycle. The nitrogen thrown away in farm and urban organic wastes in the United States each year equals 137 percent of the nitrogen in all chemical fertilizers. In contrast, China keeps her organic matter cycle intact and feeds a population four times as large as ours on an equal cultivated area. Future planning must meet the challenge of wasteful land utilization, the overshift of population to cities, and the problems of restoring the organic matter cycle.
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