Why the Jews Believed in an Inviolable Jerusalem and What the Prophets Said the Contradicted That Theory
Here again, it's important to understand how these developed. In the book of Isaiah, from which Jesus quotes, the original Isaiah of Jerusalem lived in the eighth century BCE in Jerusalem, and much of Isa 6-10 clearly reflects the political and social events of his time. Another part of the book, however, comes from a prophet who lived two hundred years later: Isaiah 40-55, famous in the New Testament (early Christians thought the suffering servant of Isaiah 53 was Jesus) and prominent in Handel's Messiah, speaks of the Persian king Cyrus the Great (d. 530 BCE), and so the text must come from that time. Other parts of the book of Isaiah are even later, and the entire book was carefully edited together, perhaps by the fifth or fourth century BCE. The extraordinary poetry of the book offers the reader hope in a God who controls historical events and seeks to return his people Israel to their own land.
It was also in America that the Jews came to enjoy an equality of status and opportunity in practice which no other society in history had extended to them. The relation between Judaism and capitalism, however, is highly complex. Judaism of the Middle Ages was a Judaism which proclaimed that God had revealed His will in the Bible and in the teachings of the rabbis, and that the goal of human endeavour was to believe in God, keep His commandments, and look to salvation in the world to come (J. H. Oldham, 1937).
Hadiths, which may be classified according to various levels of authenticity by Muslim scholars, are written traditions of Muhammad along with scholarly commentary. The Sunna is a term describing the path or practices of Muhammad, as revealed through both written hadiths and oral traditions. Much of Islamic eschatology derives from hadiths.
J. H. Oldham, ed. The Oxford Conference (Official Report), Chicago and New York: Willett, Clark and Co. 1937, pp. 100- 102.
Gustavo Gutierrez. A Theology of Liberation. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1973, p. 238.
"Reinhold Niebuhr's Social Ethics: The Later Years," in Christianity and Crisis, April 12, 1982.