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Summarize Management Theories in Their Historical Context

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An organization basically comprises of people drawn from various backgrounds and cultures. Different organizations also operate using different structures, systems and technologies

Therefore, managers face the challenge of managing the people working in the organization as well as the activities in the organization.

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The overall purpose of developing the management theories is to bring out better ways to manage people

Management theory evolves con-stantly with the continuous stream of new ideas that come from the attempts to transform theory into practice, and vice versa. As essential personnel identify promising methods that assist in managing responsibilities, it will lead to management theories progressing. This paper will il-lustrate how management theories have emerged over the years and it will point out the primary reason why it has prospered. I will introduce the management theories that present around the twentieth century. First, you have scientific management, which focused on employees and work to elevate their overall effectiveness. Next, you had administrative management, which focused primarily on the structure of management and the organization. Behavioral management theory which was popular prior to the Second World War was all about the behaviors of managers and the way they supervised their employees in order to get overall effectiveness.

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The main reason as to why managers lose confidence on management theories is multiplicity of the theories and various criticisms to the theories. It is prudent to appreciate that management is more an art than science and there are many channels to good management. Management theories therefore try to suggest the best approach to management in a particular context. Managers must not reject a management theory just because it has been shown not to be accurate or applicable at a particular situation. In context of technological advancement and global environment, modern organizations have to adopt management practices that are consistent with their situations (Drach-Zahavy 2004). In context of modern organizations, a manager is not expected to implement some management theories developed in 19th century and early 20th century as they are. Instead, manager should borrow from various management theories to come up with the best approach. For instance, contingency management theory can be very applicable in context of highly changing and competitive environment today.

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To sum up, a detailed report on management evolution and its various functions, how they help an organisation to progress in their operations. The first part shows the evolution of management, how and when it started. The second part tells us about the functions of management giving a detailed explanation about how these functions differ from each other and their importance in an organisation.

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Drach-Zahavy, A. 2004. The Proficiency Trap: How to Balance Enriched Job Designs and the Team’s Need for Support. Journal of Organizational Behavior Vol. 25, No. 8, pp. 979–997.

Grandy, A. 2004. Emotions at Work: Theory, Research and Applications for Management. Human Relations Vol. 57, No. 10, pp. 1351–1356.

Griffin, R. 2007. Fundamentals of Management. New York: Cengage Learning

McGregor, D. 1960. The Human Side of Enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1960.

Roth, W. 1994. The evolution of management theory: past, present, future. New York: Roth & Associates

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