Specific Types of Information That Each of the Ints Is Capable of Collecting
An intelligence agency is a government sponsored agency devoted to the gathering of information (intelligence) to retain state or national goals and attain national security. Various means of gathering that information may include espionage, the interception of communication, code breaking and analysis, cooperation with other law enforcement agencies, and private and public sources – all designed to be analyzed for the good of the institution.
Human Intelligence (HUMINT) is the collection of information from human sources. The collection may be done openly, as when FBI agents interview witnesses or suspects, or it may be done through clandestine or covert means (espionage). Within the United States, HUMINT collection is the FBI’s responsibility. Beyond U.S. borders, HUMINT is generally collected by the CIA, but also by other U.S. components abroad. Although HUMINT is an important collection discipline for the FBI, we also collect intelligence through other methods, including SIGINT, MASINT, and OSINT. Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) refers to electronic transmissions that can be collected by ships, planes, ground sites, or satellites. Communications Intelligence (COMINT) is a type of SIGINT and refers to the interception of communications between two parties. U.S. SIGINT satellites are designed and built by the National Reconnaissance Office, although conducting U.S. signals intelligence activities is primarily the responsibility of the National Security Agency (NSA). Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) is sometimes also referred to as photo intelligence (PHOTINT). One of the earliest forms of IMINT took place during the Civil War, when soldiers were sent up in balloons to gather intelligence about their surroundings. IMINT was practiced to a greater extent in World Wars I and II when both sides took photographs from airplanes. Today, the National Reconnaissance Office designs, builds, and operates imagery satellites, while the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is largely responsible for processing and using the imagery. Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) is the analysis and visual representation of security related activities on the earth. It is produced through an integration of imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information.Measurement and Signatures Intelligence (MASINT) is a relatively little-known collection discipline that concerns weapons capabilities and industrial activities. MASINT includes the advanced processing and use of data gathered from overhead and airborne IMINT and SIGINT collection systems. Telemetry Intelligence (TELINT) is sometimes used to indicate data relayed by weapons during tests, while electronic intelligence (ELINT) can indicate electronic emissions picked up from modern weapons and tracking systems. Both TELINT and ELINT can be types of SIGINT and contribute to MASINT.
It therefore becomes of essence that the information regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons is leveraged (OPSEC). The establishment of Army Signal Intelligence Service (SIS), which consolidates all operations related to the case of Iran, is in a position to penetrate easily into a foreign nation. This was evident during the World War II when the United Nation through SIS, which is operated under SIGNT, penetrated in Japan. GEOINT has also been recognized as having a key role in the intelligence community and defense (Lahneman 23). GEOINT examines and gives an analysis of the visual account that correlates to security actions. The analysis combines all the aspects of the imagery intelligence and the geospatial news. GEOINT uses imagery satellites to study the nuclear production in Iran. The imagery is currently obtained from an array of sensors. The imagery is vital to collect intelligent information. A proper installed imagery provides an accurate platform for targeting the weapon’s location. Secondly, it further gives a lee way to detect peculiar activities pertaining to the manufacturing of nuclear weapons in Iran.
Thus, to delve deeper, intelligence can be describes as the collecting and processing of that information about foreign countries and their agents which is needed by a government for its foreign policy and for national security, the conduct of non-attributable activities abroad to facilitate the implementation of foreign policy, and the protection of both process and product, as well as persons and organizations concerned with these, against unauthorized disclosure.
Drogin, Bob 2005, How U.S Fell Under the Spell of Curveball. PDF file. 2 Apr. 2013.
Lahneman, William. Keeping U.S Intelligence Effective, Plymouth, 2011. Print.
OPSEC. Intelligence Threat Handbook, New York: Diane Publishers, 1996. Print.