Summarize the Longer-Term Effects of Ottoman Versus European Conflicts on European Social, Political and Economic Change in the Longer-Run
Suleyman ruled with self-respect and fairness according to the Ottoman political theory. In the Ottoman state, most of the power rested with the monarch. The Monarch’s main idea was to establish justice, it meant shielding the poor and the helpless from shady officials and unfair taxation.The Sultan had a central bureaucracy, which was led by the Grand Vizier, to be able to govern the Empire. He also had the authority to capsize the verdicts of the courts if he thought that the decisions were unjust. This did not put the Sultan above law instead he was chosen as the keeper of a lawful government and fair government.The Sultan was given the title of “Caliph” as well, meaning the supreme leader of Islam. When Suleyman became grew of old age, his two sons plotted to remove him from power and achieve access to the crown. The crown in the empire did not pass from father to son or to the next oldest brother but, it was given to the most worthy successor.
While Turnbull’s summary of the Ottoman Empire identified the Empire’s greatest achievements and war efforts, Hanioglu utilized several historical documents to digress the struggle of the Empire to thwart possible opposition from local officials, and foreign powers and how they have struggled to allow the Ottoman Empire modernize itself to the socioeconomic stance its surrounding nations have already applied. He had also contrasted Turkish history to that of the histories of Europe and the world. The book also contains a breakdown of the life of an Ottoman society, from its cultural to its political facet; incorporating narratives from archives2. The book also focuses on the Tanzimat and Hamidian Regime: the Tanzimat was the restructuring of the Ottoman Empire in periods of Mahmud II and Abdulmecid I to allow non-Muslims and non-Turks to join in society with equal bounds; the Hamidian era prominently became known to the 300,000 Armenian massacres ordered by Abdul Hamid II, believing that the problems of his Empire is due to the influence of the Europeans in the form of the Armenians.
Just as they attempted to solve the empire’s problems with the adoption of European systems of law, military, and even dress, so European-style art seemed the most appropriate form of expression for what the country perceived as its own modern and cosmopolitan culture.
Black, Antony. The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present. New York: Routledge, 2001.
D’Souza, Rohan. “Crisis before the Fall: Some Speculations on the Decline of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals” Social Scientist 30, no.9/10 [September-October, 2002], 3-30.
Duiker, William & Spielvogel. World History. Boston: Wadsworth, 2012.
Hanioglu, M. Sukru. A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.
Johnson, Robert. “The Decline of the Ottoman Empire, c. 1798-1913: The Unpredictable Past” History Review [September 2005], 3-8.
Lewis, Bernard. “The Ottoman Empire and Its Aftermath,” Journal of Contemporary History 15, o. 1 [January 1980]: 27-36.