Summarize the Longer-Term Effects of Ottoman Versus European Conflicts on European Social, Political and Economic Change in the Longer-Run
The Ottoman Empire stood at a crossroads of intercontinental trade, stretching from the Balkans and the Black Sea region through the present day Middle East and most of the North African coast for six centuries up to World War I (WWI). In the research project, authors are aiming to examine the story behind the decline of history's one of the biggest and long-standing empire from an economical point of view.
The Ottoman Empire conquered and expanded under its Sultan Selim I, who ruled from (1512 to1520). But his son Sultan Suleyman, he strove the Ottoman Empire to conquering many and most of its lands, Sultan Suleyman conquered great cities, and brought military machines, a lasting culture to the great Ottoman Empire. Most of the history of this empire lies on the achievements around this one ruler who was high minded and had lots of dignity and pride. Suleyman called was now called “The Magnificent” for his numerous achievements and was also named the “Law-Giver” for the laws he established as he conquered many cities. Suleyman ruled with self-respect and fairness according to the Ottoman political theory. In the Ottoman state, most of the power rested with the monarch. The Monarch’s main idea was to establish justice, it meant shielding the poor and the helpless from shady officials and unfair taxation.The Sultan had a central bureaucracy, which was led by the Grand Vizier, to be able to govern the Empire. He also had the authority to capsize the verdicts of the courts if he thought that the decisions were unjust. This did not put the Sultan above law instead he was chosen as the keeper of a lawful government and fair government.The Sultan was given the title of “Caliph” as well, meaning the supreme leader of Islam. When Suleyman became grew of old age, his two sons plotted to remove him from power and achieve access to the crown. The crown in the empire did not pass from father to son or to the next oldest brother but, it was given to the most worthy successor.
However, M. Sukru Hanioglu’s A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire provides an in-depth discussion of the Ottoman century, providing readers a complete background of the Empire’s political, social, cultural, economic, and religious standpoint from the time of its creation up to its demise. While Turnbull’s summary of the Ottoman Empire identified the Empire’s greatest achievements and war efforts, Hanioglu utilized several historical documents to digress the struggle of the Empire to thwart possible opposition from local officials, and foreign powers and how they have struggled to allow the Ottoman Empire modernize itself to the socioeconomic stance its surrounding nations have already applied. He had also contrasted Turkish history to that of the histories of Europe and the world. The book also contains a breakdown of the life of an Ottoman society, from its cultural to its political facet; incorporating narratives from archives2. The book also focuses on the Tanzimat and Hamidian Regime: the Tanzimat was the restructuring of the Ottoman Empire in periods of Mahmud II and Abdulmecid I to allow non-Muslims and non-Turks to join in society with equal bounds; the Hamidian era prominently became known to the 300,000 Armenian massacres ordered by Abdul Hamid II, believing that the problems of his Empire is due to the influence of the Europeans in the form of the Armenians.
Summing up, the Ottoman sultans’ fascination with European art, which had so strongly influenced the arts of the eighteenth century, played an equally important role in the nineteenth. Just as they attempted to solve the empire’s problems with the adoption of European systems of law, military, and even dress, so European-style art seemed the most appropriate form of expression for what the country perceived as its own modern and cosmopolitan culture.
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D’Souza, Rohan. “Crisis before the Fall: Some Speculations on the Decline of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals” Social Scientist 30, no.9/10 [September-October, 2002], 3-30.
Duiker, William & Spielvogel. World History. Boston: Wadsworth, 2012.
Hanioglu, M. Sukru. A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.
Johnson, Robert. “The Decline of the Ottoman Empire, c. 1798-1913: The Unpredictable Past” History Review [September 2005], 3-8.
Lewis, Bernard. “The Ottoman Empire and Its Aftermath,” Journal of Contemporary History 15, o. 1 [January 1980]: 27-36.