Describe Freud's and Jung's Varying Structures of the Psyche, Including Explicit Discussion of Their Similarities and Differences
At the beginning of this colourful history was a friendship, a camaraderie based on intellectual prowess and impassioned desire to further the study into the unconscious psyche.
On the other hand, Adler is of the assumption that personality does not have a specific structure but instead an “indivisible unity”. Adler does not agree with Freud and Jung that the majority of our personality is embedded within the unconscious, he believes that whatever thoughts and behaviors are stored in the unconscious are things that we wish to avoid, evade or don’t quite understand. Thus in the opinion of Adler, the conscious and the unconscious work hand in hand to comprehend and achieves one’s goals established by the being. Freud’s view of problem formation is that repressed complexes are influenced by the id, ego and super ego. When a person’s ego is threatened by a severe occurrence that is associated with anxiety and unpleasantness the person represses this into the unconscious mind as a way of protection and removing the negativity from their life. According to Freud, because of the conflicts that arises due to threatening material in the awareness defense mechanisms, represses the thoughts for a period of time. Jung’s view of problem formation is similar to that of Freud in that he is also of the opinion that “repression is an internal barrier to block the frustrations of the external world”. In addition, his view differs from Freud in that Jung suggests that problems form because of a one sided development and he believes that repression is the cause of Neurosis. Adler’s view of problem formation is somewhat similar to that of Freud and Jung in that he believed that it is beneficial to bring forth early recollections of one’s life that may have been repressed unconsciously in efforts to identify one’s personality and style of life. On the other hand, differing from the other two theorists, Adler views psychopathology and problem formation as “serious errors in living, designed to achieve an easy and distorted form of superiority”.
According to Jung human beings are composed of constructive and destructive forces. It is important to recognize our dark side or shadow together with its characteristics such as greed and selfishness as being part of our nature (Casement, 2005).He continues to state that there is a physical force that usually operates in the dream. This force is responsible for creating a balance between the high physical value and those of low physical value. The new ones created are later found on the dream content. Freud states that dream as a wish fulfillment is determined by active material at that particular time. In the real sense therefore, it means that there are no dreams but wishful ones. He added that even the latent meanings can be described as the wish fulfilling dream. However, in 1920, Freud reviewed his interpretation of the dream. He changed his principle that all dreams are wish fulfilling. He accepted the fact that nightmares and horrifying dreams were as a result of traumatic experiences. Moreover, he believed that things happening around us could appear in dreams (Coolidge, 2006). Jung’s interpretation of dreams was much more than that of Freud. He strongly believed that dreams were real. In addition, he believed that dreams can be interpreted at an individual level because they are personal and cannot be interpreted by any glossary. He states that they are messages that are sent from an individual’s unconscious part.
An example is that of a sleepy student. On the contrary, Jung believed that dreams are not distortions, but in a different aspect, they present a different language. In explaining this point, Jung gives an example gives an example of a man who has the intention of advancing himself in a fast and quicker manner. Jung gives an interpretation of the man’s dreams, and he tries to use these interpretations for purposes of discouraging this man from involving himself into seeking a quick fortune. However, Jung explains how the man uses Freud’s concept of wishful fulfillment, and goes on with his plans, resulting to a loss of everything that he or she possesses. These are the summaries of the differences and similarities of Jung and Freud’s ideas on dreams.
Coolidge, F. (2006) Dream Interpretation as a Psychotherapeutic Technique. Abingdon, U.K, Radliffe Publishing Ltd.
Corey, G. (2008) Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Thompson brooks/Cole C.A.
Casement, P. (2005) On Learning from the Patient. London, Tavistock publications.
Jung, C. (1980) The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. NY, Princeton University Press.
Storr, A. (1989) Freud: A Very Short Introduction. New York, Oxford University Press.
Stevens, A. (1994) Jung: A Very Short Introduction. New York, Oxford University Press.