The Purnell Model and Its Framework
Nonverbal communications such as the use of eye contact, facial expressions, touch, body language, spatial distancing practices, and acceptable greetings; temporality in terms of past, present, or future worldview orientation; clock versus social time; and the use of names are important concepts.
The model was conceptualized from multiple theories, a research base garnered from administrative, communication, family development and organizational theories as well as discipline knowledge in anthropology, nutrition, pharmacology, physiology, anatomy amongst others (Purnell, 2002).
Almost every health journal now has articles addressing "cultural competence."
Purnell, L. (2002). The Purnell model for cultural competence. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3), 193-196.
Purnell, L. (2005). The Purnell model for cultural competence. The Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health, 11(2), 7-17.
Rose, P. R. (2013). Cultural competency for the health professional. Burlington, MA: Jones & Barlett learning.