On the 7th of August, 1990 the forces of coalition arrived to the threatened territory and they were ready to protect the citizens and the land. Unfortunately, as all requirements and offers of the UN Security Council were ignored by Iraq, the organization has adopted the final resolution, number 678 that demanded the country to withdraw its troops from Kuwait. The ultimatum expired on the 15th of January 1991 and on the 17th of January the air strike started. As a result of this operation, the principal weapon congestions, as well as bridges, structures and infrastructure of Iraq were destroyed. After the joining of the ground offensive on the 24th of February that liberated Kuwait city the war was not long-drawn-out and on the second of March the war ceased by defeat of Iraq.
As a result of Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on August 2nd 1990, Operation Desert shield was implemented by the United States on August 7th. Trying to deter Iraq from advancing farther into the country the U.S. began staging troops, equipment and other supplies needed to sustain a military in war time. Moving resources by air and sea the American armed forces presence was made known in the region with resources being staged in the allied countries of Saudi Arabia These later we mobilized initiating operation Desert Storm on January 17th 1991 at 3am Arabia Time when the first tanks rolled across the Saudi border, this conflict would continue until the official cease fire would take effect on April 11th of the same year (Operation). Sailing from Diego Garcia, Guam and Saipan, these ships the US expeditiously set up staging areas for the coming days of the Persian Gulf. With the initial movement of the maritime prepositioned ships, the American maritime fleet had undertaken a challenge that it had been designed, moving war goods to the battle front. At the helm of the American merchant mariners role during Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm was the Military Sealift Command. In charge of 230 government-owned and chartered ships, MSC was the largest war supplies shipper of any nation involved. Taking 12 million tons of cargo at an average rate of 43,000 tons per day, the United States had showcased its maritime dominance moving across the world’s oceans without hindrance (Military). This would not have been possible if the US Navy did not maintain maritime supremacy, a corner stone of any good national policy. The ability to allow its ships to transit the open waters freely was one of the primary factors that the initial mobilization and the subsequent support was capable of succeeding. Military sealift command initially planned to rely on the Ready Reserve Force for their sealift capabilities.
Their operations were modernized by the use of laser and fiber optic signaling systems and a large number of real-time intelligence systems. These systems could think fast and help in making decisions. They could make calculations and/or control bases, with others even sending warnings if they detected them. They were capable of providing correlated and automated information in the image and database form to all military stratifications (House 17). Through the use of these systems, the United State Central base maintained its closed systems as it was known. Therefore, the rival Iraq could not tap in the information. Such rivals received spontaneous attacks, which were a big advantage to the US militaries who were assured of data security and integrity as they could make secret passes into the Iraq bases by the use of their marine. Moreover, they could communicate with the units using fiber optic channels and/or use the satellite to control the space (Larsen 6).In general, use of emerging technologies by that era gave the US Control Base a greater advantage over the Iraq forces. As it soon became apparent to the United States Government acting in conjunction with all the other participants that it would require a revolutionized system to deal with its numbers as well as their operations, including communication interception of its enemies’ correspondence. This strategy led to the adoption and engagement of the C3I system (Boatman 645).
As shown above, Hussein's repeated rejection to abandon the invasion and leave Kuwait led to the commencement of combat operations on 18 January 1991. The subsequent bombardment by air assets and the effects of the economic embargo decimated Iraq's military infrastructure and morale, degraded communications and supplies, and devastated weapons arsenals. During the beginnings of the war, Navy ships launched salvos of Tomahawk cruise missiles against military targets in Iraq to “soften” the battlefield for ground troops. After the 38-day air campaign, ground troops began sweeping through Kuwait in blitzkrieg fashion. In a mere 100 hours, the Iraqi army was crushed. Iraqi soldiers surrendered by the thousands. Kuwait was free again.
Gordon, Michael, and Bernard Trainor. The Generals’ War: The Inside Story of the Conflict in the Gulf. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1995. Print.
House, John. “Lessons from the Battlekings (3d Battalion, 41st Field Artillery) in the Desert.” Field Artillery Journal 28.10(1991): 16 -21. Print.
Larsen, Henry. 3×8 Artillery Tactics: Before, During, and After Operation Desert Storm. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: University of Oklahoma, Schwarzkopf, Oklahoma, 1982. Print.
Medical Mobilization Planning and Execution. U.S. Department of Defense Inspector General Report 93-INS-13: Operation Desert Storm: Full Army Medical Capability Not Achieved. London: U.S. General Accounting Office Publication GAO/NS1AD-92-175, n.d. Print.