What Are the Types of Organizational Development Intervention?
Managing change in individuals and organisations is a continuous process. If this is done, a good organisational climate can be maintained. Some organisations may make a thorough analysis of organisational problems and then implement a long-range programme based on it. Such an approach goes by the name Organisational Development. Although organisational change and development are related, organisational developmental activities are principally directed at improving the process or interpersonal side of organisational life. In fact, several organisations seek to cope with changes by developing innovative ways not only to deal with change but also to promote it.
All the above explained five stems have great influence on the current practice of organisational development as well as by the trends that are responsible of shaping change in the organisations. The commonality between all the backgrounds is that all wholeheartedly support the transfer of knowledge and skill to the client system and making them capable of managing better change. This field of organisational development is on a growth spree as it can be witnessed through the new researchers, theorists, practitioners who are building their work on the work of early pioneers and making it perfect for the contemporary situations. Organisational development had its origin in the 1960’s when the need of Organisational health preponderant. Organisational development tends to works by acknowledging the dysfunctions and correcting them in order to retain equilibrium. Initial approaches to Organisational development was developed on the theories of Kurt Lewin who described it as a planned change and is based on Field theory, Group dynamics, Action Research and Three step model. Apart from significant work carried out by Kurt Lewin there are other prominent researchers in this field proposed a four phase model of planned change – Exploration phase, Planning phase, Action phase and Integration phase. It will be worth mentioning that in spite of the extensive work carried the focus was on change at Individual and Group level ignoring the organisations in their entirety. Organisational development is concerned with managing planned change targeting organisation-wide issues, problems and challenges. Organisational development is basically a data-driven process, collected through process of action research by ways such as observations, assessments and surveys. Intent of organisational development to improve organisational effectiveness and it serves the purpose of both the creation as well as the subsequent reinforcement of change.
OD applies to scientific knowledge on behavioral development that embraces a number of concepts, including work design, leadership skills, team building and international design. The system is a flexible scheme that entails implementation of changes. Furthermore, it should adapt quickly to changes and, when the new data is introduced or experienced, it should be ready to process it (Cummings and Worley, 2008, p. 50). Indeed, it involves a long range of efforts that will improve problem-solving strategies, as well as its ability to face various challenges within an organization (Cummings and Worley, 2008, p. 2). Organizational development considers change a process that involves a set of such activities as planning, diagnosing, assessing, and implementing (Jex and Britt, 2008, p. 477). The organizational development process assures the establishment of favorable relationship within a work environment and outside it and provides groups with the possibility to initiate and manage change. Further, organizational development is considered a set of core values, such as respect and commitment, genuineness and cooperation, self-awareness and improvement, democracy and feeling of justice. The process is made up of the four main activities. These are introducing, analyzing, planning, and implementing (Anderson, 2011, p. 42). The process involves an action research scheme which allows to define the problem and analyze the reasons for introducing changes. Further, it is purposeful to plan an intervention, evaluate and implement it. The next step will involve collecting information to assess the intervention and define whether progress has been reached or whether further interventions are needed. Furthermore, it begins when a leader envisions relevant approaches and strives to enhance organizational performance (Jex and Britt, 2008, p. 473).
In a word, organizational development (OD) is an application of behavioral science to organizational change. It consists of a wide array of theories, processes, and activities, all of which are oriented toward the goal of improving individual organizations. OD focuses on carefully planned approaches to changing or improving organizational structures and processes, in an attempt maximize organizational effectiveness.
Anderson, L. D. (2011). Organization Development: The Process of Leading Organizational Change. California: SAGE.
Cummings, G. T., & Worley, G. C. (2008). Organization development & change. Vancouver: Cengage Learning.
Jex, M. S., & Britt, W. T. (2008). Organizational psychology: A scientist – practitioner approach. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
McLean, N. G. (2005). Organization development: Principles, processes, performance. California: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.