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The Relative Arguments for a Firm Choosing Between Internal and External Sources of Long-Term Finance

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Sources of finance for business are equity, debt, debentures, retained earnings, term loans, working capital loans, letter of credit, euro issue, venture funding etc. These sources of funds are used in different situations

They are classified based on time period, ownership and control, and their source of generation. It is ideal to evaluate each source of capital before opting for it. Sources of capital are the most explorable area especially for the entrepreneurs who are about to start a new business. It is perhaps the toughest part of all the efforts. There are various capital sources, we can classify on the basis of different parameters.

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Franchising is a method of expanding business on less capital than would otherwise be needed. For suitable businesses, it is an alternative to raising extra capital for growth. Franchisors include Budget Rent-a-Car, Wimpy, Nando's Chicken and Chicken Inn. Under a franchising arrangement, a franchisee pays a franchisor for the right to operate a local business, under the franchisor's trade name. The franchisor must bear certain costs (possibly for architect's work, establishment costs, legal costs, marketing costs and the cost of other support services) and will charge the franchisee an initial franchise fee to cover set-up costs, relying on the subsequent regular payments by the franchisee for an operating profit. These regular payments will usually be a percentage of the franchisee's turnover. Although the franchisor will probably pay a large part of the initial investment cost of a franchisee's outlet, the franchisee will be expected to contribute a share of the investment himself

The franchisor may well help the franchisee to obtain loan capital to provide his-share of the investment cost.

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Advantage: Preserving Your Resources One of the advantages of external funding is it allows you to use internal financial resources for other purposes. If you can find an investment that has a higher interest rate than the bank loan your company just secured, it makes sense to preserve your own resources and put your money into that investment, using the external financing for business operations. You can also set aside your internal financial resources for cash payments to vendors, which can help improve your company's credit rating.

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Heitor Almeida and Murillo Campello
The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis
Vol. 45, No. 3 (JUNE 2010), pp. 589-622

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