How Have European Constructed Notions of Beauty and Social Class Division Affected the Acceptance of Afro-Latinx Communities and Obstructed Their Development?
Afro-Latinos have formed groups that, with the help of international organizations, are seeking political representation, human rights protection, land rights, and greater social and economic opportunities. Improvement in the status of Afro-Latinos could be difficult and contentious, however, depending on the circumstances of the Afro-descendant populations in each country.
Interviews were face-to-face and lasted approximately three hours.
In the theories of Adam Smith and Herbert Spencer differentiation was regarded as a fundamental principle of change, but the integration of specialized activities was not problematic in their theories because it was regarded as a result that emerged from the aggregation of voluntary exchange in society. Differentiation (the division of labor) also played a central role in the theories of Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim. Marx posited contradictions, conflicts, and ultimate disintegration as arising from the differentiation of economic and social positions in economic systems. Durkheim stressed the need for positive integration in a differentiated society if anomie and conflict were not to become endemic. In his contribution to this volume, Alexander acknowledges the power of Durkheim's theory of differentiation but finds shortcomings in its naive evolutionary assumptions and its mechanistic quality.
Bates, P., Chiba, M., Kube, S. and Nakashima, D. (eds.). 2009. Learning and Knowing in Indigenous Societies Today. Paris, UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001807/180754e.pdf
Benavot, A. 2008. Background material for the compilation of IBE [International Bureau of Education] fi gures on timetables and curricula