Europe, Latin America, Middle East, Africa: the Differences in Political, Cultural and Military Organizational Visions
While Brazil maintained its territorial integrity after independence, the former Spanish America split into more than a dozen separate countries, following the administrative divisions of the colonial system. The difficulty for the inhabitants of these units was not, however, as simple as the demarcation of geographic boundaries. Rather, the recently emancipated countries of Latin America faced the much more daunting challenge of defining and consolidating new nations.
After the Cold War ended, promoting the international spread of democracy seemed poised to replace containment as the guiding principle of U.S. foreign policy. Scholars, policymakers, and commentators embraced the idea that democratization could become America's next mission. In recent years, however, critics have argued that spreading democracy may be unwise or even harmful. This paper addresses this debate.
A more recent study, for example, suggests that it is a volatile combination of rentier states and authoritarian republics – both being geographical and historical contingencies in the Middle East – that explains much of the region’s interstate conflict (Colgan 2013). Similarly, it has been suggested that the continuing prevalence of a particular regime type, monarchies, has in fact had a pacifying effect on the region Fenja Søndergaard Møller, ‘Blue Blood or True Blood: Why Are Levels of Intrastate Armed Conflict So Low in Middle Eastern Monarchies,’ Conflict Management and Peace Science (2017). The leading introductory textbook on the political-economy of the region similarly concludes that, in comparison to other regions, there is nothing extraordinary about the number of wars in the Middle East despite the exceedingly militarised nature of many of its regimes (Cammett et al. 2015).
This National Military Strategy describes how we will employ our military forces to protect and advance our national interests. We must be able to rapidly adapt to new threats while maintaining comparative advantage over traditional ones. Success will increasingly depend on how well our military instrument can support the other instruments of power and enable our network of allies and partners. The 2015 NMS continues the call for greater agility, innovation, and integration. It reinforces the need for the U.S. military to remain globally engaged to shape the security environment and to preserve our network of alliances. It echoes previous documents in noting the imperative within our profession to develop leaders of competence, character, and consequence
Carmichael, K. (2012, June 20). Canada’s ‘Reshoring’ Opportunity. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/economy/canada-competes/canadas-reshoring-opportunity/article4230748/
Chesto, J. (2011, May 24). Boston company gives up on offshoring call centre jobs to India, moves them to Maine instead. Mass.Market.