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Distinguish Between Speaker-Centered Presentation and Extemporaneous Presentation

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You've been asked to speak at a meeting. What do you say? How do you present it? Who will be there? What mood will they be in? Public speaking is an art and a science, and is valued in virtually every society on the planet. Speaker-centered communication is a model used in public speaking that focuses entirely on the activities of the speaker. This model takes into consideration five factors: the speaker, the message, the event taking place, the audience, and the effect.If you are the presenter, you will prepare the message, adjusting for the characteristics of the target audience, the dynamics of the situation, and your particular strengths and weaknesses

Perhaps most important of all, you will be responsible for creating the desired effect in your audience. Your ethos, or credibility, is a critical element in how well your message will come across to the people.

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Being audience-centered means putting the audience at the center of your presentation. This is a powerful approach to help you really connect and make a difference, rather than just making a speech or presenting dry knowledge. Audiences respond to presentations that make sense, are relevant to them, reflect careful research and also sound interesting. They also respond to people who show they care, personally. They say it is 'giving' a speech because it is that, a gift, given for the audience. It is not for the personal benefit of the presenter. Many presentations are speaker-centered. It is all about the speaker saying what she or he wants to say, presenting information in a format that makes sense to them. This is a relatively easy and perhaps a bit lazy as it assumes not only that the speaker knows his or her subject (which may be reasonable) but that the audience have the responsibility to understand whatever is thrown at them in whatever fashion. College lecturers sometimes act like this.Speaker-centered presenters present to the room or an 'audience' that is treated as a thing rather than a composition of people. They seek to be an authority that is not challenged. They are the experts and the audience, by contrast, are not. Maybe also, they are not expert and fear the judgement of the audience. On the other hand, an audience-centered speaker sees the audience not as an audience but as a group of individuals, each with their own needs and perceptions. Their goal is not to present but to make the biggest difference to as many people as possible. Paradoxically, the audience are likely to warm more to the speaker who shows an interest in them and tries to connect with them, rather than the speaker-centered person who is at the center of their own universe

To be audience-centered, you should start and end with the audience. Find out who they are. Research the individual people if you can or otherwise understand the broader demographics. Seek out their hopes, interests, fears and desires. Find out how they learn, what they find funny and what they do not like. If you know the audience, then you can design for the audience. You can customize your speech and shape your presentation for them. And in doing so, you can achieve your goals and more. A particular consideration is to find a significant problem that the audience has that you can help address in your presentation. If you can do this, then you will have a very grateful set of people! A final point worth remembering is that if you first make them happy then they will be happy to make you happy in return, including accepting your primary proposition. In your presentation or speech, you can also engage the audience and engage with the audience. Engaging the audience means presenting information that is of interest to them in a way that they find interesting. It means using their language and speaking to their needs. There are many ways of engaging in this way, from going down amongst them to using props and other items to surprise and delight them. Engaging with the audience is more about the interactions you have with them. You can provoke them with questions and listen carefully to their answers. You can probe for information and laugh with them even when you make a mistake.

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The foundation of a group presentation is constructed from all the guidelines you use in an individual presentation coupled with additional strategies for working effectively with others. Group presentations primarily entail group communication, planning, organization, and delivery. Effective groups communicate about interaction roles, decision making, and conflict resolution (Bohn, E. & Jabusch, D. (1982). Such communication helps the group reflect on group dynamics, customize communication for this speaking group, and establish a unified commitment and collaborative climate. After a group receives an invitation to speak, they begin by establishing clear objectives related to the group process and/or product

In addition, they direct their preparation by developing a unified understanding of the type of presentation, logistics, and agreed outcomes and debriefing. Preparation is foundational in guiding group research, writing, and thinking back to focus after engaging in a variety of resources or conversations. The audience is at the core of the organizing content. A plan helps group members determine what to put in as well as leave out of the selected content. The group members work to establish group credibility and trustworthiness among their audience. In addition, the plan will assist the group in packaging for various types of audience-centered presentations—onetime presentations; presentations bidding for a long-term relationship; presentations continuing a relationship for offering expertise; or presentations tied to performance appraisals. The plan guides the group in determining the most compatible words, narratives, and enthusiasm to support their relevant messages (deVito, J. 1992).

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To summarize, extemporaneous speaking is a skill that requires the ability to engage listeners to the topic and naturally discloses the idea with the mighty power of words. With little practice and devotion, you can make listeners genuinely interested in your personality and your manner of presenting any subject

If you have struggles defining your topic or keep asking “can someone write my speech?”, there are writing services that are ready to help. Stay confident, forget about fear, and strive to deliver the most memorable extemporaneous speech ever.

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Benne, K.D. & Sheats, P. (1948). Functional roles of group members. Journal of Social Issues 4, 41-49.

Bohn, E. & Jabusch, D. (1982). The effect of four methods of instruction on the use of visual aids in speeches. The Western Journal of Speech Communication, 46, 253-265.

Brilhart, J.K., Galanes, G.J., & Adams, K. (2001). Effective group discussions: Theory and practice (10th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Carron, A. V., Brawley, L. R., & Widmeyer, N. W. (1998). The measurement of cohesiveness in sports groups. In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology

deVito, J. 1992, The interpersonal communication handbook (6th edition). New York: Harper Collins

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