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The Difference Between the Epimysium, Perimysium and Endomysium

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Smooth muscle lacks the coarse connective tissue sheaths seen in skeletal muscle

However, a small amount of fine connective tissue (endomysium), secreted by the smooth muscles themselves and containing blood vessels and nerves, is found between smooth muscle fibers. Most smooth muscle is organized into sheets of closely apposed fibers. These sheets occur in the walls of all but the smallest blood vessels and in the walls of hollow organs of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts. In most cases, there are two sheets of smooth muscle with their fibers oriented at right angles to each other, as in the intestine.

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Skeletal muscle consists of several tissues, such as muscle fibers and connective and adipose tissues. This review aims to describe the features of these various muscle components and their relationships with the technological, nutritional, and sensory properties of meat/flesh from different livestock and fish species. Thus, the contractile and metabolic types, size and number of muscle fibers, the content, composition and distribution of the connective tissue, and the content and lipid composition of intramuscular fat play a role in the determination of meat/flesh appearance, color, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and technological value. Interestingly, the biochemical and structural characteristics of muscle fibers, intramuscular connective tissue, and intramuscular fat appear to play independent role, which suggests that the properties of these various muscle components can be independently modulated by genetics or environmental factors to achieve production efficiency and improve meat/flesh quality. The muscle mass of livestock and fish species used to produce human food represents 35 to 60% of their body weight. The striated skeletal muscles attached to the backbone are involved in voluntary movements and facilitate the locomotion and posture. Skeletal muscles exhibit a wide diversity of shapes, sizes, anatomical locations, and physiological functions. They are characterized by a composite appearance because in addition to muscle fibers, they contain connective, adipose, vascular, and nervous tissues. Muscle fibers, intramuscular connective tissue, and intramuscular fat play key roles in the determination of meat and fish flesh quality. Concerning meat and aquatic products, the different stakeholders, that is, producers, slaughterers, processors, distributors, and consumers, exhibit varied and specific requirements about quality that depend on their use of the products

Quality is generally described by 4 terms: security (hygienic quality), healthiness (nutritional quality), satisfaction (organoleptic quality), and serviceability (ease of use, ability to be processed, and prices). Satisfaction is driven by the qualities perceived by consumers. They include color, texture, and juiciness as well as flavor, which is associated with the aromas released in the mouth when the product is consumed. Satisfaction is also driven by technological qualities that reflect the ability of the product to be processed. They are mostly associated with a decrease in technological yield because of a decrease in water-holding capacity during cold storage (exudations) and cooking or because of damage that occurs after slicing.

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Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue (S. Weinbaum, S. C. Cowin, 1994). Normal bone remodeling is necessary for fracture healing and skeleton adaptation to mechanical use, as well as for calcium homeostasis. On the other hand, an imbalance of bone resorption and formation results in several bone diseases. For example, excessive resorption by osteoclasts without the corresponding amount of nerformed bone by osteoblasts contributes to bone loss and osteoporosis, whereas the contrary may result in osteopetrosis. Thus, the equilibrium between bone formation and resorption is necessary and depends on the action of several local and systemic factors including hormones, cytokines, chemokines, and biomechanical stimulation.On the other hand, phosphate-containing compounds are degraded by the ALP secreted by osteoblasts, releasing phosphate ions inside the matrix vesicles (T. Negishi-Koga and H. Takayanagi, 2012). Then, the phosphate and calcium ions inside the vesicles nucleate, forming the hydroxyapatite crystals

The fibrillar phase occurs when the supersaturation of calcium and phosphate ions inside the matrix vesicles leads to the rupture of these structures and the hydroxyapatite crystals spread to the surrounding matrix.

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To conclude, human movement is only possible because of the action of muscle contraction

Voluntary contraction of muscle is made possible by the somatic nervous system which sends out an action potential activating the contraction process. The process is accomplished by the sliding of myosin and actin over each other. Many diseases and disorders affect muscles, prominent among them is muscular polymyosis which causes inflammation of the muscles mainly around the torso. It’s believed to be caused by the unwanted action of the white blood cells and the symptoms include muscle weakness.

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S. Weinbaum, S. C. Cowin, and Y. Zeng, “A model for the excitation of osteocytes by mechanical loading-induced bone fluid shear stresses,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 339–360, 1994.

T. Negishi-Koga and H. Takayanagi, “Bone cell communication factors and Semaphorins,” BoneKEy Reports, vol. 1, article 183, 2012.

L. M. Calvi, N. A. Sims, J. L. Hunzelman et al., “Activated parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor in osteoblastic cells differentially affects cortical and trabecular bone,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 277–286, 2001.

D. Miao and A. Scutt, “Recruitment, augmentation and apoptosis of rat osteoclasts in 1,25-(OH)2D3 response to short-term treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in vivo,” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 7, pp. 3–16, 2002.

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