Are Chinese Immigrants Becoming More Nationalistic Towards Their Sending Country or Their Host Country?
The fundamental change of the Chinese diasporic communities over the last two decades, however, has put this conventional wisdom into contestation.
The majority of Chinese immigrants, for example, were single men who worked for a while and returned home. At first, they were attracted to North America by the gold rush in California. Many prospected for gold on their own or labored for other miners. Soon, many opened their own businesses such as restaurants, laundries, and other personal service concerns. After the gold rush, Chinese immigrants worked as agricultural laborers, on railroad construction crews throughout the West, and in low-paying industrial jobs.
The second wave of human migration started after the Second World War, caused by massive destruction and the redrawing of state boundaries, particularly in Europe. The present and third wave is a combination of both voluntary and forced migration composed of a large section of the world population. In this wave, many more are not only migrating to other countries in search of jobs and better livelihood, but they are also moving in significant numbers to newly developing regions. A large number of people, who are forced out of their living place because of war, armed conflicts or natural disasters, are finding it difficult to move out of their countries due to restrictive migration receiving policies imposed by many countries, so there has been a substantial increase in the number of internally displaced people (Ashok Swain, 1996).
Ashok Swain, “Environmental migration and conflict dynamics: focus on developing regions”, Third World Quarterly, 17 (5), 1996, pp. 959-73.
IOM, World Migration Report, 2018, Geneva: International Organization for Migration, 2017.
United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Human Development Report 2009, Overcoming Barriers: Human Mobility and Development. UNDP and Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2009.
OECD , International Migration Outlook 2018, OECD Publishing, Paris, 2018