How Psychosocial Factors Influence Athletes' Likelihood of Injury
Older patients were more adherent when they were self-motivated and perceived high levels of social support, whereas younger patients were more adherent when they were highly invested in the athlete role as a source of self-worth.
The model recognizes the interaction among the cognitive appraisal and emotional and behavioral responses as a dynamic and bidirectional cyclic process, which in turn has an effect on both physical and psychological recovery outcomes (Ray R, 1999). Thus far, a wealth of evidence exists in support of the model. Most athletes appear to be psychologically affected (emotional response) when injured, and these psychological responses can have a significant influence on the quality and speed of the sport-injury rehabilitation process. Support for the use of psychosocial strategies (a behavioral response) during sport-injury rehabilitation has also been documented in the literature. For example, goal setting, imagery, positive self-talk, and relaxation strategies have been useful in helping athletes cope with pain, stress, and anxiety and address self-efficacy, self-esteem, and confidence-related apprehensions, as well as concerns with rehabilitation motivation and adherence. In addition, the role of sports medicine professionals (a situational factor) in influencing injured athletes' cognitive appraisal of the injury, emotional and behavioral responses, the rehabilitation process, and the physical and psychological recovery outcomes is also important (Kottler JA, 1986).
However, several studies have shown a certain readiness to take risks (lack of caution, adventurous spirit) on the part of injured athletes. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the relationship between psychological factors and sports injuries is presented and a stress theory model is developed.
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