How Have Islam and Indonesian Nationalism Affected Hindu Reform in Indonesia?
By the end of the 14th century, Samudra-Pasai had become a wealthy commercial centre, but it gave way in the early 15th century to the better-protected harbour of Malacca on the southwest coast of the Malay Peninsula. Javanese middlemen, converging on Malacca, ensured the harbour’s importance.
An example of a difference in apprehension, Islam does not admit that Jesus is the son of God; this acknowledgement would disprove the Islamic belief in the uniqueness of God’s deity. Like Judaism, Islam has powerful constitutional tradition that describes the rules by which believers of the religious community should live. Part of these rules includes dietary restriction against eating pork which is very similar.
Latif, Indonesian Muslim Intelligentsia and Power, 201.
Elson, “Disunity, Distance, Disregard,” 22. On Sukiman, see Abu Hanifah, Tales of a Revolution (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1972), 189.
Formichi, Islam and the Making of the Nation, 57–58; Noer, Partai Islam, 18; oral history with Harsono Tjokroaminoto, interviewed by Wardiningsih Surjohardjo, ANRI SL1 1982 #60, tape 11.