Which Aspects of Latin American History and Cultural Formations Are Reflected in Calle 13’s Video Latinoamérica?
The first use of the term “Latin America” can be traced back to the 1850s in the writings of Michel Chevalier (1806–1879), who employed the term as a way to differentiate the “Latin” peoples from the “Anglo-Saxon” peoples of the Americas, using language to create a geographic distinction.
"Who cares if you like Green Day? Who cares if you like Coldplay?" Joglar taunted Latinas in one of Calle 13's most famous lines. "I swear that by law, all Puerto Rican women know karate, they cook with Salsa De Tomate, and dip the rice in avocado, so they can harvest nalgas de 14 kilates — 14 karat butts." Nuria Net is the managing editor at Fusion, and she says that even at the time, she was in no way offended by Calle 13's lyrics. "Calle 13 rapped about the female body, the nalgas, the curves, the bodily fluids ... It was so much more graphic, and poetic, but even raunchier than reggaeton and urban music 10 years ago." Beyond its concern for derrieres, from the very beginning the band also had a political streak. One of its first songs is called "Querido FBI," or "Dear FBI," and it was an enraged protest against the FBI's killing of Puerto Rican nationalist Filiberto Ojeda Rios. "They've pissed on our flag, he bled to death, my people, I tell you he bled to death," Joglar rapped. Back in those days, Joglar says he "didn't care about anything. I had no commitments, I was relaxed." He might have been careless, but he had a huge impact on Latin music. Music blogger Juan Data says that Calle 13 broke a lot of barriers, adding, "It was the first time there was intelligent music in Latin America." Musically, the band also evolved unexpectedly. While its counterparts kept riding on that thumping mix of Spanish rap and Caribbean beats known as reggaeton, Calle 13 experimented with sounds from across the Latin world, collaborating with rock bands such as Mexico's Cafe Tacvba, or Panamanian salsa legend Ruben Blades.
The Article also focuses on citizenship-based voting purges because voting on a particular issue or for a candidate or party, expresses some facet of the voter’s beliefs, values, and ideology (Bonnie L. Mitchell & Joe R. Feagin). This means that voters have the ability to elect officials that may reflect or at least be responsive to their views. The inability to vote consequently renders a person voiceless, relegating them to the societal periphery. The hope is that the music of Calle 13 may provide a voice, or a hidden transcript, for Latinos who would otherwise be silenced by laws and policies that disenfranchise them.
or their pride in being Latino American.
Theresa A. Martinez, Image of the “Socially Disinherited”: Inner-City Youth in Rap Music, 10 J.L. & FAM. STUDIES 111, 119 (2007)
Bonnie L. Mitchell & Joe R. Feagin, America’s Racial-Ethnic Cultures: Opposition within a Mythical Melting Pot, in TOWARD THE MULTICULTURAL UNIVERSITY 65, 68–69
Ana Henderson, Citizenship, Voting, and Asian American Political Engagement, 3 U.C. IRVINE L. REV. 1077, 1084–89 (2013)
Myrna Pérez, Voter Purges, BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, 1 (2008)