Explain: Las Nietas de Nonó, Daddy Yankee, and Calle 13 Resist the Scars of Colonization, Discrimination, Poverty, and Racism by Embracing Their Challenges, Connecting to Their Cultural Roots, and Empowering Themselves and Others Through Their Art
Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument.
Wayne Marshall, Raquel Rivera, and Deborah Hernandez (2009) detail the complexity of reggaeton in cultural expression stating, “its suggestive sonic and cultural profile has animated contentious debates around issues of race, nation, class, gender, sexuality, and language” (p. 1). Thus, tense political situations concerning expression of identity found in reggaeton formed political divides, and for many created a dim view of the genre. However, in recent years, attitudes towards reggaeton have shifted, with a growing acceptance of its inclusion into the Puerto Rican soundscape. Shrouded in a blur, reggaeton’s beginnings emerged from a mixing of several genres important across the Caribbean; controversy persists over its origins. Most debates center around its geographic creation and conflicts between Panama and Puerto Rico. However, Wayne Marshall (2010) defines reggaeton as a “Puerto Rican and, increasingly, pan-Latino fusion of hip-hop and dancehall reggae”. He later adds that reggaeton developed at the turn of the 21st century as record producers began to commercialize it across Latin America.
. or with their hips.
Rivera, R., Marshall, W., & Pacini Hernandez, D. (Eds.). (2009). Reggaeton. Durham: Duke University Press.
Powell, J., & Menendian, S. (2016). The problem of othering: Towards inclusiveness and belonging. Othering and Belonging: Expanding the Circle of Human Concern, 1(1), 14-40.
Rivera-Rideau, P. (2015). Remixing reggaetón: The cultural politics of race in Puerto Rico. Durham: Duke University Press.