Explain: Las Nietas de Nonó, Daddy Yankee, and Calle 13 Resist the Scars of Colonization, Discrimination, Poverty, and Racism by Embracing Their Challenges, Connecting to Their Cultural Roots, and Empowering Themselves and Others Through Their Art
In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument.
This commentary created by and for everyday people, in their words and idioms, revealed subversive and satirical examples of popular protest and cultural resistance. This “bottom up” approach allowed those who resided within the margins of society to become direct and active participants in the building and shaping of a new paradigm.
Most debates center around its geographic creation and conflicts between Panama and Puerto Rico. However, Wayne Marshall (2010) defines reggaeton as a “Puerto Rican and, increasingly, pan-Latino fusion of hip-hop and dancehall reggae”. He later adds that reggaeton developed at the turn of the 21st century as record producers began to commercialize it across Latin America.
. . or with their hips.
Rivera, R., Marshall, W., & Pacini Hernandez, D. (Eds.). (2009). Reggaeton. Durham: Duke University Press.
Powell, J., & Menendian, S. (2016). The problem of othering: Towards inclusiveness and belonging. Othering and Belonging: Expanding the Circle of Human Concern, 1(1), 14-40.
Rivera-Rideau, P. (2015). Remixing reggaetón: The cultural politics of race in Puerto Rico. Durham: Duke University Press.