What Age, If Any, Do You Gauge Is a "Good" Age to State a Juvenile Is Culpable for Their Actions, Particularly Delinquent/Criminal?
Confinement is very rare in Bremen, but used in roughly 10-20% of Denver cases.
The development of empathy, guilt feelings, social cognition, and moral reasoning are generally considered important emotional and cognitive correlates of social development.A teenager who becomes pregnant is also more likely than older mothers to be poor, to be on welfare, to have curtailed her education, and to deliver a baby with low birthweight. Separately or together, these correlates of teenage parenthood have been found to increase risk for delinquency.
2000). A 2007 study by McGarrell and Hipple, however, showed overall mixed results in terms of recidivism rates of youth participants. The study authors also compared the outcomes of conferences coordinated by municipal police officers, compared with Indianapolis school police officers. The results showed a statistically significant decrease in the hazard rate for arrest by the municipal police officers (17 percent), when compared with the school police officers. This suggested that patrol officers may be more appropriate facilitators than school police officers; however, the study authors cautioned that there were various reasons why the outcomes from cases involving municipal police officers differed from the school police officers, and that it was not clear what accounted for the observed differences. A 2008 study by Hipple and McGarrell compared family group-conferencing sessions facilitated by police officers with those facilitated by civilians. The study found that conferences run by police wereprocedurally similar and resulted in similar recidivism rates as those run by civilians (although police facilitators were found to lecture youth participants more than civilian facilitators did). The findings suggest that police can serve as facilitators in a family group-conferencing diversion program, without interfering with the process and intent of the program. Results from a recent meta-analysis of restorative justice programs and practices showed police cautioning and other diversion programs had the largest positive effect on delinquency outcomes, compared with other restorative justice program types, suggesting that these programs might be effective for low-risk and first-time youth offenders (Wilson, Olaghere, and Kimbrell 2017).
The very language used in juvenile court underscored these differences. Juveniles are not charged with crimes, but rather with delinquencies; they are not found guilty, but rather are adjudicated delinquent; they are not sent to prison, but to training school or reformatory.
Wilson, David B., Iain Brennan, and Ajima Olaghere. 2017. “Police Initiated Diversion for Youth to Prevent Future Delinquent Behaviors: A Systematic Review.” Campbell Systematic Reviews.
McGarrell, Edmund F., Kathleen Olivares, Kay Crawford, and Natalie Kroovand Hipple. 2000. Returning Justice to the Community: The Indianapolis Juvenile Restorative Justice Experiment. Indianapolis, Ind.: Hudson Institute, Crime Control Policy Center.
Meyer, Jessica R., and N. Dickon Reppucci. 2007. “Police Practices and Perceptions Regarding Juvenile Interrogation and Interrogative Suggestibility.” Behavioral Sciences & the Law 25:757–80.
Lundman, Richard J., Richard E. Sykes, and John P. Clark. 1978. “Police Control of Juveniles: A Replication.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 15(1):74–91.
Mastrofski, Stephen D. 2004. “Controlling Street-level Police Discretion.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 593(1):100–18.