Explain How the Concepts of the Conceptual Model and Middle-Range Theory Are Consistent and Are Linked
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Some writers use the term model to designate a method of representing phenomena with a minimal use of words, which can convey different meanings to different people. Two types of models used in research contexts are schematic models and statistical models. Statistical models, not discussed here, are equations that mathematically express relationships among a set of variables and that are tested statistically.
Holistic comfort is defined as the immediate experience of being strengthened through having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence met in four contexts of experience (physical, psychospiritual, social, and environmental).The comfort theory has been operationalized in many research settings with a variety of patient and target populations ranging from end of life care to the comfort of nurses. Despite nurses as frontline caregivers for dying patients and their families many nurses have identified that they struggle with the responding adequately to the emotional devastation to parents and siblings when caring for a neonate with an unresolved terminal condition. With the advances in neonatal care and life sustaining treatments, sick and very preterm infants do not often die in utero, at birth, or shortly after birth, but instead they often live much longer in a healthcare paradigm of comfort care and dignified death. This relatively new emersion of the end of life model integrates a more holistic approach which considers a more comprehensive view of the patient’s needs (emotional, spiritual, and medical).
For example, the theory of planned behavior, from the discipline of social psychology, has been linked with Neuman's Systems Model and with Orem's Self-Care Framework (Doornbos MM., 2000). As with the second approach, this approach is problematic in that the world view undergirding the Orem's conceptual model and the world view undergirding the conceptual model from which the theory was derived may not be logically congruent. Logical congruence would be evident only if the world view undergirding Orem's conceptual model and the world view undergirding the conceptual model from which the theory was derived are the same. Latham (40) rejected the third approach on the grounds that it does not contribute to the advancement of the discipline of nursing. She declared: Grafting a particular borrowed theory onto a nursing conceptual model may be a questionable exercise. … Rather the emphasis could be placed on creating distinctive cognitive approaches with the parameters of nursing. … Nursing research will not advance knowledge if it continues to hang on the coattails of other disciplines.
Interventions can be used to alter the interpretation of physiological feedback and help individuals cope with physical sensations, enhancing self efficacy and resulting in improved performance.
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