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The Daily Routine in Dairy Plant for Raw Milk Evaluation and Processing

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Lactose is a unique disaccharide found in milk. Lactose concentration in bovine milk is about 4.8%. People with lactose intolerance lack the enzyme, beta-galactosidase or lactase, to break down lactose into glucose and galactose during digestion. All milk, raw or pasteurized, contains lactose and can cause lactose intolerance in sensitive individuals. There is no indigenous lactase in milk

Raw milk advocates claim that raw milk does not cause lactose intolerance because it contains lactase secreted by “beneficial” or probiotic bacteria present in raw milk. As discussed in a later section (claim 4), raw milk does not contain probiotic organisms.

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During the first 100 years of the Journal of Dairy Science, dairy foods and dairy production dairy scientists have partnered to publish new data and research results that have fostered the development of new knowledge. This knowledge has been the underpinning of both the commercial development of the fluid milk processing industry and regulations and marketing policies for the benefit of dairy farmers, processors, and consumers. During the first 50 years, most of the focus was on producing and delivering high-quality raw milk to factories and improving the shelf life of pasteurized fluid milk. During the second 50 years, raw milk quality was further improved through the use of milk quality payment incentives. Due to changing demographics and lifestyle, whole fluid milk consumption declined and processing technologies were developed to increase the range of fluid milk products (skim and low-fat milks, flavored milks, lactose-reduced milk, long-shelf-life milks, and milks with higher protein and calcium contents) offered to the consumer. In addition, technology to produce specialty high-protein sports beverages was developed, which expanded the milk-based beverage offerings to the consumer. In the 50 years before the initiation of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), milk processing in the United States had evolved from production of milk, butter, and cheese on farms to a system of local milk assembly in small country factories and creameries for production of market milk, cheese, butter, condensed milk, and milk powder. Transportation of milk to local dairy factories was typically done by horse and wagon

As larger cities developed, the demand for market (i.e., fluid) milk by city markets created more of a challenge because of slow transportation and lack of refrigeration. Farms near large cities were able to supply milk for the fluid market and those farms enjoyed a higher price for their milk, whereas farms located far from cities provided milk to produce cheese and butter and received a lower price for their milk. Farms in rural areas had little bargaining power for milk price because of the perishable nature of raw milk. As populations grew in urban areas, the demand for market milk increased and raw milk had to be transported longer distances. The most viable option for rapid transportation of raw milk from rural areas to cities was in large milk cans carried by train in ice-cooled railroad cars. The trains ran daily from country to city. Milk was received at privately owned central market milk processing facilities, where it was heat treated and packaged in returnable glass bottles for home delivery.

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Becker et al

(2007) developed a cost and returns evaluation of alternative dairy products to determine the operational feasibility of a small-scale dairy processing facility. The start-up investment costs for each of the facilities would include land, buildings, site work, utilities, and equipment. The buildings would include the processing plant, office space, milk truck delivery bay, finished product cold storage, dry product warehouse space, wastewater treatment capacity, and shipping/loading dock area. The most significant operating costs are labor, raw milk prices, factory overhead, and interest expenses. Hammarlund (2003) describes the financial projections of a dairy processing facility. The study looked at the costs and revenues for a smaller and larger operation. A range was estimated for the projected revenue. Expenses were based on per gallon cost for each facility. Costs such as enrichments, flavoring, supplies, and packaging did not vary dramatically with the size of operation. Costs such as labor, utilities, and depreciation varied on a per unit basis based on the amount of volume for each plant. Cost of delivery was added to expenses. Delivery and distribution costs are extremely variable depending on the market area.

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In conclusion, the dairy industry is a traditional industry with a low margin commodity. Industry 4.0 vision for dairy manufacturing is to introduce the aspects of operational excellence and implementation of information and communications technologies

The dairy industries’ reply to Industry 4.0 is represented predominantly by proactive maintenance and optimization of production and logistical chains, such as robotic milking machines and processing and packaging line automation reinforced by sensors for rapid chemical and microbial analysis with improved and real-time data management.

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Hammarlund, R. 2003. Value-Added Dairy Processing Feasibility Report. Kansas Department of Commerce, Agricultural Marketing Division.

Becker, K.M., R.L. Parsons, J. Kolodinsky, and G.N. Matiru. 2007. A Cost and Returns
Evaluation of Alternative Dairy Products to Determine Capital Investment and Operational Feasibility of a Small-Scale Dairy Processing Facility. Journal of Dairy Science 90: 2506-2516.

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