Who Is a Jew in Muslim Spain, Nazi Germany, and the Contemporary U.S.
Renewed vitriol among right-wing fascists and new threats from radicalized Islamists have created a crisis, confronting Jews with an agonizing choice.
Less than a decade later, forced conversions of Muslims began; by 1609, they were being expelled.
The Germans targeted the non-Jewish Polishintelligentsia for killing, and deported millions of Polish and Soviet civilians for forced labor inGermany or in occupied Poland, where these individuals worked and often died under deplorableconditions. (Bergen, Doris, 2003)
Some Spanish altarpieces, as recent scholarship has shown, portray the interiors of medieval synagogues and present biblical Jews in medieval costume. These reflect Christian awareness of Jewish practice, and consultation with, or even the use of Jewish artists, to which surviving documentary evidence attests.
Bergen, Doris. War & Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust.
Lanham, MD: Rowman &Littlefield, 2003Dawidowicz, Lucy S. The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston,1975.
Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War. NewYork: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1986.