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Define the Term Specifications?

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Exact statement of the particular needs to be satisfied, or essential characteristics that a customer requires (in a good, material, method, process, service, system, or work) and which a vendor must deliver

Specifications are written usually in a manner that enables both parties (and/or an independent certifier) to measure the degree of conformance. They are, however, not the same as control limits (which allow fluctuations within a range), and conformance to them does not necessarily mean quality (which is a predictable degree of dependability and uniformity).

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The term specification is used in multiple contexts in relation to project management. In all such contexts a specification is a document drawn up as a result of concerted effort by project management personal, sometimes including the input of any persons providing financial backing or commissioning the project in question. A requirement specification is a document that describes as completely as possible a product or service to be created, including prerequisite function, behavior, and other characteristics

A design specification defines essential performance characteristics or goal to be satisfied by the completed. A product specification is a document describing a product in a manner through which a working model of the product can be built or created. These are all documents which management personnel would make use of prior to the creation of a prototype product or model service. But a test specification is used after the creation of said product or service. It is a document written which details the necessary steps which project management must take to effectively test the product or service to ensure it meets the defined standards in both the design and product specifications. In other words the test specification describes the procedures necessary for determining whether the requirements of all the other specification documents have been satisfied.

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Thus, it is important to pay attention not only to targets as the values met while producing goods but also to tolerances as the permissible variations which can affect the quality of the end product (Collier & Evans, 2011, p. 303). As a result, specifications can be standard and permissible, and they depend on the definite measures. Specifications are the necessary aspect to discuss the quality of the product, especially with references to producing vehicles. Customers are inclined to draw conclusions about the quality of the product paying much attention to the standard specifications, and professionals usually analyze the quality of the vehicle concentrating on the possible tolerances as the features to affect the general quality of the end product

It is important to note that the product cannot be discussed as meeting the quality standards when it does not conform to specifications (Collier & Evans, 2011, p. 303). Thus, the problem is in the fact that designers can work out different specifications for various models in order to accentuate the uniqueness of the product. However, the general standards and values should be followed strictly to guarantee the production of high-quality goods. For instance, choosing a vehicle, customers pay attention to such engine specifications as the type of the engine used, horsepower, fuel delivery and economy, and the transmission type. The task of the Ford Motor Company’s designers is to develop a model with the characteristics and specifications which could meet the highest technology standards and customers’ expectations in relation to the new model of a vehicle.

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In conclusion, the terms "functional" and "performance" are used interchangeably to designate an approach to specifications that is less interested in dimensions and materials and configurations and more interested in what a product does. The performance specification is less interested in how a product is made, and more interested in how it performs, how well it performs, and at what cost. Performance purchasing is results orientated in terms of function and cost. In contrast to the design approach, performance specifications afford the manufacturer or bidder sizable latitude in how to accomplish the end purpose.

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Collier, D. A., & Evans, J. R. (2011). OM 3. USA: Cengage Learning.

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