Does Global Governance Undermine or Enhance Democracy?
John R. Mathiason identifies five functions that are performed by this international sector: regime creation, mobilisation of information, direct provision of certain public services, norm enforcement and internal management. Each covers a wide variety of tasks and objectives. Samuel M. Makinda in his essay ‘Recasting Global Governance’ demonstrates that global governance can be understood from several perspectives. This he does by focusing on three themes: state sovereignty, globalisation and Western hegemony. He explains briefly the theoretical approaches, and describes how the global ‘interpretive community’ has sought to influence perceptions of global governance. He also analyses how sovereignty has evolved. As global governance is a multifaceted process, studying it requires theoretical framework that goes beyond a single paradigm. Makinda employs a pluralist approach that is informed by insights mainly, but not exclusively, from realist, liberal and constructivist research programmes. There are several variants of realism, liberalism and constructivism. Moreover, even when taken together, these three paradigms cannot shed light on every facet of global life. They go a long way in explaining power, order, norms and change. As Stephen Walt has argued: ‘The “complete diplomat” of the future should remain cognizant of realism’s emphasis on the inescapable role of power, keep liberalism’s awareness of domestic forces in mind, and occasionally reflect on constructivism’s vision of change’. Realist accounts of global politics tend to emphasise how states use power to maximise their national interests. They posit that the most important international actors are sovereign states, which are rational and operate in an inherently competitive, anarchic and self-help environment. Realists assume that sovereignty makes states functionally similar. They also emphasise strategies that states devise in efforts to improve their standing in international economic competition, influence weaker states or compete for international prestige.
United Nations and other international organization help in improving the humanitarian conditions. For example, the Red Cross provides food, medicine, clothes, and shelter to those individuals who are brutally punished by the dictatorial regime. The UN also attempt to control governance through deploying its troops, to maintain peace and order. The most appropriate role of UN is sanctioning the governance of dictators, either by suspending both material and financial help. In order to eliminate, these global political issues, the entire stakeholder should unite towards the fight against the dictators. However, the fact is one day; the society will rise against dictatorship, and eliminate its leaders, the latest incident being in Libya. In order for countries to experience development, they must accept democracy (Magstadt 165). Political issues in the world today are diverse and affect every sector of human life, namely, social, economic, as well as cultural. In General perspective, the study of international relationship and political issues is an access to a better and broader understanding of society, world, and human nature. Global warming is a political issue in the 21st century that affects international relations. In the past, the issue of global warming was, more of an environmental issue than political (Magstadt 17). However, currently the issue of global warming has become political. The modernization of western states, especially in economic growth, urbanization, democracy, technological development, has always been built upon the power of industrialization. This affects the environment, by causing global warming. The political leaders of these nations protect their industrialization development, claiming that there are other causes of global warming, rather than emission of industrial gases. Politicization of global warming took the stage in the year 2007. In fact, politicization of global warming will never end; this is because the governments provide funds to the scientist who research on the issue. The rich and powerful nations, such as United States have seized greenhouse gas theory, and gone against numerous climatic protocols, in order to maintain their benefits and promote their interests. Scientists believe that the continued depletion of the ozone layer is a threat to the security of the globe.
Magstadt, T. Understanding Politics: Ideas, Institution, and Issues, 9th Edition. California:Wadsworth. 2010.