Comparison Between Belgium and Austria in Terms of Cluster Policies
At the same time, there have been significant changes in the consideration of industrial policy in Europe.
This (pre-)selection process was based on intensive interaction with stakeholders, not on an academic study. The first chosen candidates comprised e.g. automotive, polymers and furniture / wood.” W. Pamminger, CEO of Clusterland Upper Austria describes the process of implementing cluster policy as follows: “In Upper Austria we reduced all cluster mapping activities to a minimum. We asked key players in the region and saved the cost of a consulting company. In my opinion the mapping issue is generally overestimated. Cluster mapping is simply a new business model.
(Michael Porter, 2008).
Michael Porter, On Competition (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2008), 171.
Natalia Drozdiak, Belgium to Try to Ease Employment Costs, Wall Street Journal, October 13, 2015
Bruce Barnard, ‘Antwerp Container Volume Growth Double Rotterdam’, Flanders New, ‘Possible 3.7 Billion Investment in Port of Antwerp’,
Oxfam_Wereldwinkels, “The Belgium Chocolate Sector: Role and Importance of Belgium in the Cocoa and Chocolate Chain,” November 2010.