Why Did the Baath Party and the Muslim Brotherhood Emerge?
Or he is like Muammar Qaddafi, another revolutionary with a nutty revolutionary doctrine—and not like, say, the non-Baathist and merely corrupt dictator of Tunisia, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, who, at the start of the Arab Spring, proved that he was genuinely a pragmatist by cutting his losses and those of Tunisia and getting on a plane.
In the parliamentary elections held in 1947, the Brotherhood won only four of the 130 seats; in 1961, in the first election after Syria's secession from the United Arab Republic (its short-lived federation with Egypt), it did better and won 10 seats. In the interim, several representatives of the movement held ministerial portfolios in the Syrian government, and Supreme Guide Issam al-Attar, al-Sibai's successor, was even offered the post of deputy prime minister (Eyal Zisser, Faces of Syria).
Ideologies The Ba’ath party’s ideology revolves around the promotion of Arab nationalism.
Eyal Zisser, Faces of Syria: Society, Regime and State (Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 2003), 252-253 [Hebrew];
Derek Hopwood, Syria 1945-1986 (Unwin Hyman, 1988), 46; and Raymond Hinnebusch, Syria: Revolution from Above (Routledge, 2001), 35.
Hanna Batatu, "Syria's Muslim Brethren," Middle East Research and Information Project 12 (1982).
Hinnebusch, Syria: Revolution from Above, 49-51; and Zisser, Faces of Syria, 247-249.
Moshe Ma'oz, Assad: The Sphinx of Damascus (Dvir, 1988), 84-92 [Hebrew]; and Eyal Zisser, Assad's Syria at a Crossroads (Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 1999), 35-49 [Hebrew].
Hopwood, Syria 1945-1986, 63, 98-100; and Batatu, "Syria's Muslim Brethren."