How Are Earthquakes a Threat in Automobile Transportation?
These interact to form the ‘flow pattern’ that we experience; for example, which are the heavy transport routes, how many people use the bus, what times of the day and week are busiest and so on.
An effective way to assess how critical infrastructure is would be to consider the impacts its removal would have on the flows and activities it services. From an economic standpoint, the impacts of disasters are dependent on three factors; 1) the nature and level of incidence of disasters; 2) the level of exposure of populations and infrastructures and; 3) the level of vulnerability of populations and infrastructures.
Furthermore, the three railway lines which were used daily by 650,000 passengers were closed completely, leaving Kobe's transportation system at less than 5% of its normal capacity. This situation alone is enough to demonstrate the severity of the earthquake's impact on traffic conditions in Kobe (JSCE, 1995).
will necessarily require acomprehensive, collaborative approach,led by the Federal government. PublicLaw 101-614, the National EarthquakeHazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) Reauthorization Act directs FEMA, inconsultation with the National Instituteof Standards and Technology (NIST), todevelop a “plan, including precisetimetables and budget estimates, fordeveloping and adopting, in consultationwith appropriate private sector organizations, design and construction standards for lifelines,” including transportation systems.
IATSS, Research Report: Study on Road Traffic Management against Earthquake based on Actual Damaged Conditions Following Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, March. (1998).
Lida, Y. and Kurauchi F. Development of Traffic Management System in an Emergency, Confronting Urban Earthquakes, Report of Fundamental Research on the Mitigation of Urban Disasters Caused by Near Field Earthquakes, pp.202–209, March. (2000).
IATSS, Research Report: Study on Personal Passenger Car Traffic Regulation Following the Great Earthquake Disaster, June. (2000).
Christchurch City Council (CCC 2010). A City for People – Action Plan. February 2010.