Who Depends on Whom More — the FAA on the Air Traffic Controllers, or the Air Traffic?
They give pilots taxiing and take off instructions, air traffic clearance, and advice based on their own observations and experience. They provide separation between landing and departing aircraft, transfer control of aircraft to the en route center controllers when the aircraft leave their airspace, and receive control of aircraft on flights coming into their airspace.
This is normally done via VHF radio, but there may be special cases where other processes are used. Most aircraft and airside vehicles have radios. Aircraft or vehicles without radios will communicate with the tower via aviation light signals or will be led by vehicles with radios. People working on the airport surface normally have a communications link through which they can reach or be reached by ground control, commonly either by handheld radio or even cell phone. Ground control is vital to the smooth operation of the airport because this position might constrain the order.
The CAB also reduced subsidies on the trunk routes and increased them for non-trunk routes. With the advent of commercial jets, the capacity of trunk carriers increased significantly allowing them to operate economically without subsidies. Load factors reduced and cost of fuel rose in the 70s, leading to calls for regulatory reforms. As a result of all these, Congress passed the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, and subsequently all routes were opened to all domestic carriers to operate services (Smith and Cox, n.d.). This created increasing competition and lowering of airfares as well as improved service and choice for passengers.
Aircraft Archeology (n.d.) Aircraft Wrecks in Arizona and the South-West.
Cooper, JC (1946) The Bermuda Plan: World Pattern for Air Transport.
FAA (1996) Historical Chronology, 1926-1996.
Gillen, DW, Morrison, WG and Stewart, C (2008) Air Travel Demand Elasticities: Concepts, Issues and Measurement. Wilfred Lauren University, Waterloo, Canada.
Harris, Amy (2012) The History of Airline Industry.