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Who Depends on Whom More — the FAA on the Air Traffic Controllers, or the Air Traffic?

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Air Traffic Control Tower Controllers Work in the glassed-in towers you see at airports. They manage traffic from the airport to a radius of 3 to 30 miles out

They give pilots taxiing and take off instructions, air traffic clearance, and advice based on their own observations and experience. They provide separation between landing and departing aircraft, transfer control of aircraft to the en route center controllers when the aircraft leave their airspace, and receive control of aircraft on flights coming into their airspace.

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Ground Control is responsible for the airport "maneuvering" areas, or areas not released to the airlines or other users. This generally includes all taxiways, inactive runways, holding areas, and some transitional aprons or intersections where aircraft arrive having vacated the runway and departure gates. Exact areas and control responsibilities are clearly defined in local documents and agreements at each airport. Any aircraft, vehicle, or person walking or working in these areas is required to have clearance from the ground controller. This is normally done via VHF radio, but there may be special cases where other processes are used. Most aircraft and airside vehicles have radios. Aircraft or vehicles without radios will communicate with the tower via aviation light signals or will be led by vehicles with radios

People working on the airport surface normally have a communications link through which they can reach or be reached by ground control, commonly either by handheld radio or even cell phone. Ground control is vital to the smooth operation of the airport because this position might constrain the order.

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In the 1970s, Alfred Kahn, a supporter of deregulation became the head of CAB (Gillen, Morrison and Stewart, 2008). Around the same time, the classifications of airlines across types – domestic, trunk, air taxi, etc

began to get extremely complicated due to the large variety of services being offered. In addition, a British airline began offering intercontinental services at relatively cheap rates, which led to the demand for lower costs on inter-city domestic air travel as well. The CAB also reduced subsidies on the trunk routes and increased them for non-trunk routes. With the advent of commercial jets, the capacity of trunk carriers increased significantly allowing them to operate economically without subsidies. Load factors reduced and cost of fuel rose in the 70s, leading to calls for regulatory reforms. As a result of all these, Congress passed the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, and subsequently all routes were opened to all domestic carriers to operate services (Smith and Cox, n.d.). This created increasing competition and lowering of airfares as well as improved service and choice for passengers.

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Ordinarily, the policies underlying the use of the NextGen system is that it will be implemented in the world wide airport systems and area to ease integration between the different geographical location and the international system. An instance is its current introduction into the European scenario which is taking effect positively. The only hindrance for an international grid implementation is that they face challenges regarding cultural and organizational issues with foreign carriers

So far Europe is the first foreign carrier under effecting the NextGen system on their air traffic modernization scheme.

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Aircraft Archeology (n.d.) Aircraft Wrecks in Arizona and the South-West.
Cooper, JC (1946) The Bermuda Plan: World Pattern for Air Transport.

FAA (1996) Historical Chronology, 1926-1996.

Gillen, DW, Morrison, WG and Stewart, C (2008) Air Travel Demand Elasticities: Concepts, Issues and Measurement. Wilfred Lauren University, Waterloo, Canada.

Harris, Amy (2012) The History of Airline Industry.

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