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Turbine Engine & Gas Turbine Engine

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Gas turbine engines date back to the early 1940's

Sir Frank Wittle, a British aeronautical engineer and aviator, invented the turbojet engine. Gas turbine engines took off, and have been soaring ever since. They offer an unmatched power to weight ratio, which make them ideal for many applications. Turbine engines are used in aircraft and on boats. Some smaller gas turbine engines are even used to produce electrical power, drive pumps, and generate steam.

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Gas turbines are described thermodynamically by the Brayton cycle, in which air is compressed without an increase or decrease in the entropy, combustion occurs at constant pressure, and expansion over the turbine occurs without an increase or decrease in the entropy back to the starting pressure (contributors, Gas turbine). They have a very simple design and consist of three main parts the compressor assembly, combustion assembly, and the turbine assembly. According to Marshall Brian the first step is for the Compressor to compress the incoming air to high-pressure. Then the Combustion area burns the fuel and produces high-pressure, high-velocity gas. Next the Turbine extracts the energy from the high-pressure, high-velocity gas flowing from the combustion chamber

Finally the turbine drives controllable pitch propellers through a conventional main reduction gear, shaft and clutch. Gas turbine engines have some advantages over diesel engines. As said by Marshal Brain, they have a great power-to-weight ratio compared to other internal combustion engines. That is, the power you get out of the engine compared to the weight of the engine itself is excellent. Gas turbine engines are smaller than their internal combustion engine counterparts of the same power.

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The first compressor is driven by the second, third, and fourth turbine stages through the inner or front compressor drive shaft. Thus, the first compressor rotates independently of the rear compressor

The vanes at the first stage reduce the speed of air and direct it to the compressor rotor blades of second stage with the process continuing through all the stages of compressor rotor. From here, air enters the section of diffusion (Mattingly, Heiser and Pratt). The altitude of the location of gas turbine alters the power developed by the gas turbine. The reason is the decreasing air density with altitude, hence on a dry or humid day; the gas turbine at high altitude will swallow air of less weight. With the increase in the forward speed, increases the ram air pressure along with pressure and air temperature. Ram air pressure is the air pressure of free stream created by the aircraft engine’s forward motion (Hill and Peterson).

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To summarize, capillary tubing will have to be used to reduce the temperature of the air that the pressure gauge is measuring.A model for this setup must be developed

To complete the construction of the engine, all of the displays for the thermocouples and pressure gauges should be mounted in a display panel so that students can view all of the relevant information in one location. The push buttonfor the igniter could also be mounted to this panel. Once all of these components have been integrated, the gas-turbine will be completed.

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Bloch, H., and C. Soares. Process Plant Machinery. Boston: Butterworth–Heinemann, 1998.

J. Mattingly, W. Heiser and D. Pratt. Aircraft Engine Design. AIAA, 2003.

Kerrebrock, Jack L. Aircraft Engines and Gas Turbines. The MIT Press, 1992.

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