Prevalence of Pressure Ulcer
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Exudation and malodour may lead to social problems and this, along with skin problems, may decrease a patient’s quality of life. Hence Pressure ulcers need to be prevented as far as possible in all care settings. Pressure ulcer management involves treating infection, providing a moist wound-healing environment and choosing the appropriate dressing.
However, a systematic review of the research literature found only three randomized controlled trials covering participants. This Cochrane review determined that based on only three randomized controlled trials, there remains insufficient evidence to recommend the use of silver-containing dressings or topical agents for treatment of infected or contaminated chronic wounds.The use of antiseptics to reduce wound contamination continues to be a controversial topic. The ideal agent for an infected pressure ulcer would be bactericidal to a wide range of pathogens and noncytotoxic to leukocytres. In vitro studies of 1 percent povidone-iodine have been found to be toxic to fibroblast, but a solution of 0.005% sodium hypochlorite (P = 0.001) caused no fibroblast toxicity and was still bactericidal to Staphylococcus aureus.111 Another common antiseptic with conflicting data is sodium hypochlorite (Dakins solution). Studies suggest that 0.005 percent concentration of sodium hypochlorite to be bactericidal; however, its use can also cause inhibition of fibroblast and neutrophil migration necessary for pressure ulcer healing.
(NICE 2005) Decisions for pressure relieving device should determine at risk assessment. It must include level of risk, comfort, patient`s preferences, general health and timing of the surgery.
These immigration cycles can lead to spread of communicable diseases through human interactions. Thus, there should be a proper global risk management protocol for communicable diseases. The inefficiency of health systems can lead to huge loss of lives. For instance, the unpreparedness by third world African countries towards the Ebola epidemic has led to wide spread of the disease. In such situations, the safety of health staff is not guaranteed and work inefficiency due to personal fear may be encountered.
Kaitani, T., Tokunaga, K., Matsui, N. and Sanada, H. (2010). Risk factors related to the development of pressure ulcers in the critical care settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, 414-421.
Lewis,M., Pearson,A., Ward,C. (2003) Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: Transforming research findings into consensus based clinical guidelines. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 9, p.92-102.
Lindgren, M., Unosson, M. and Krantz, A. M. (2002) A risk assessment scale for the prediction of pressure sore development: reliability and validity. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 38, p.190-199.
Nix DP. Support surfaces. In: Bryant R, Nix D, eds. Acute & Chronic Wounds: Current Management Concepts. 3rd ed. St Louis MO: Mosby; 2007:235-248.