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Reasonable Suspicion and Probable Cause

A law enforcement officer can only arrest a person when there is probable cause. To arrive at the probable cause, there has to be reasonable suspicion. After establishing reasonable suspicion, the officer must determine probable cause to make an arrest (Peters, 2019). If these elements are not adhered to, it amounts to illegal arrest and violation of the right to freedom. In this regard, the pressed charges should be dropped forth while.

Question 1:To arrive at the probable cause, there has to be reasonable suspicion." The citation you use from the Peters' article discusses mass arrests (arrests of large numbers of people). Does that analysis apply in the individual arrest case: why or why not?
Does it make sense to have a requirement that a police officer has to articulate both reasonable suspicion and probable cause before effecting a valid arrest or seizure of evidence: why or why not?

Question 2: You explicitly indicated that there is no clear definition of 'probable cause' and that officers should use the circumstances, knowledge, and facts available at the moment to make them have a probable cause, but how exactly are they supposed to do this? Do they need lessons on what signs to look for to make them have a probable cause? What happens when someone is arrested without a probable cause?

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