How the Inflammation Event Occurs
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Local inflammatory response (local inflammation) occurs within the area affected by the harmful stimulus. Acute local inflammation develops within minutes or hours after the influence of a harmful stimulus, has a short duration, and primarily involves the innate immune system. The five classic signs of acute local inflammation are redness, swelling, heat, pain, and loss of function. These classical signs result from the sequence of events that are triggered by tissue damage and allow leukocytes to get to the site of damage to eliminate the causative factor.
Usually, during acute inflammatory responses, cellular and molecular events and interactions efficiently minimize impending injury or infection. This mitigation process contributes to restoration of tissue homeostasis and resolution of the acute inflammation. However, uncontrolled acute inflammation may become chronic, contributing to a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. At the tissue level, inflammation is characterized by redness, swelling, heat, pain, and loss of tissue function, which result from local immune, vascular and inflammatory cell responses to infection or injury. Important microcirculatory events that occur during the inflammatory process include vascular permeability changes, leukocyte recruitment and accumulation, and inflammatory mediator release. Various pathogenic factors, such as infection, tissue injury, or cardiac infarction, can induce inflammation by causing tissue damage. The etiologies of inflammation can be infectious or non-infectious. In response to tissue injury, the body initiates a chemical signaling cascade that stimulates responses aimed at healing affected tissues (Medzhitov R., 2010). These signals activate leukocyte chemotaxis from the general circulation to sites of damage. These activated leukocytes produce cytokines that induce inflammatory responses. The inflammatory response is the coordinate activation of signaling pathways that regulate inflammatory mediator levels in resident tissue cells and inflammatory cells recruited from the blood . Inflammation is a common pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and bowel diseases, diabetes, arthritis, and cancer . Although inflammatory response processes depend on the precise nature of the initial stimulus and its location in the body, they all share a common mechanism, which can be summarized as follows: 1) cell surface pattern receptors recognize detrimental stimuli; 2) inflammatory pathways are activated; 3) inflammatory markers are released; and 4) inflammatory cells are recruited (Zhou Y, Hong Y, 2016).
The irritant might be a germ, but it could also be a foreign object, such as a splinter in your finger. This means that an inflammation doesn’t only start when, for instance, a wound has already been infected by bacteria, is oozing pus or healing poorly. It already starts when the body is trying to fight against the harmful irritant.
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