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Preschooler With ADHD Disorder

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ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. ADHD has been a recognized disorder for over 50 years. There are three different types of ADHD. The disorder affects both males and females

ADHD does not affect intellectual ability, individuals with this disorder are just as smart as others. Doctors and researchers are still not sure why some people have ADHD. Researchers show that the disorder of ADHD probably genetic and that it may be inherited. Scientists are also exploring other things that may be associated with ADHD. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often lasts into adulthood.

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ADHD stand for attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. According to Smith and Tyler “attention deficit hyperactivity is a condition of hyperactivity, impulsivity, inattention; included in other health impairments.” ADHD is often to referred as attention deficit disorder (ADD). Amongst school-age children attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has been recognized as the most common disorder. ADHD has many symptoms but the main core symptoms are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. A student’s academic success is often dependent on his/her ability to maintain a task, pay attention to the teacher and follow classroom expectations with minimal distraction. There are several ways of dealing with ADHD in the classroom that can make learning effective for these students. In order for teachers to understand ADHD they must a have knowledge about what it is and how to deal with children that has this type of disorder. “Children with ADHD are often inattentive in the classroom. This may be manifested by not being able to follow rules or directions, not listening to the teacher and being distracted by external stimuli in the classroom. This affects children with ADHD in that they are often singled out by the teacher for problems with inattention

They may not be able to complete assignments in a timely fashion and may feel inferior to their classmates. These children may also suffer poor grades as a result”. “Children with ADHD are hyperactive. They may not being able to sit still at their desks, frequently getting up and wandering about the classroom, asking to leave the classroom to go to the nurse or the bathroom and/or acting out in various ways that distract other students. Teachers can become frustrated with this behavior, and consequently, students with ADHD are often in trouble. The hyperactive behavior can negatively affect school performance and learning”. (Nichols, 2010) “Children with ADHD are impulsive and, due to their condition, may act without forethought. They frequently blurt out in class, make noises, laugh at inappropriate times and interrupt others. Because of these actions that occur through no fault of their own, ADHD children may require separation from the group, which can negatively affect their socialization and friendships with peers”.Some of the symptoms of ADHD are often controlled with medication. If medication does not help control children with ADHD other methods are available to assist in controlling them, such as psychotherapy. Students with ADHD are often medicated to help control them. Children with ADHD are not acting willfully. Children with ADHD are not interrupting the class or being disobedient because they are bad, they are acting this way because of a disorder they have. If you keep this in mind, it will be a lot easier to respond to the child in a positive, supportive way. With patience, compassion, and plenty of support, teachers and parents can manage a child with ADHD.

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The authors of the article are Chang Hsin and Chang Ching of the National Cheng Kung University as well as Shin of the nursing department in Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (Chang, H., Chang, C., & Shin, Y., 2007). The objective of the article is to offer a description of the process of behavior modification for a child diagnosed with ADHD. The research involved a child who had not reported positive effects despite undergoing treatment of ADHD using medication. The child was subjected to behavior modification together with medication for the next year with the medication based on the prescription of the doctor. The behavior treatment was based on the drafts of the doctors and experts with major techniques being punishment and skillful reinforcement. The information was collected from interviews with parents and teachers and other observation. The study was done by DuPaul of Lehigh University Pennsylvania and White of Education Leadership program. The purpose of the report is to provide a guideline to educators on ways of dealing with children with ADHD. They report that educators spend much time dealing with students with special needs such as children with ADHD. The article suggests that medical and psychosocial treatments help but responses to medication vary with individual differences hence requiring monitoring

They suggest the need for staff to be updated with medical research with behavioral interventions in the classroom of antecedent based strategies such as modified lengths of assignments, posting of rules and peer tutoring among others, and consequent strategies based on reward systems and reinforcements as well as academic interventions. They suggest the establishment of a support system for children with ADHD which includes increased time during testing, preferential seating in class, choice of a quiet place for testing purposes and increased length of assignments (Ibrahim, E., 2002).

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As has been noted, while ADHD is a serious disorder that can have a direct impact on the human capital accumulation of a child, it is likely not severe enough a condition to impact the parental labor or home markets. It may be the case that if a child has other comorbidities that confound the parents ability to take care of the child, then the child’s ADHD may become a more serious issue for the parents. Separating the impact of ADHD and other conditions is work for further research.

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Chang, H., Chang, C., & Shin, Y. (2007). The Process of Assisting Behavior Modification in a Child with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Nursing Research, 15(2), 147-154.

Coles, E., Pelham, W., Gnagy, E., Burrows-Maclean, L., Fabiano, G., et al. (2005). A Controlled Evaluation of Behavioral Treatment with Children with ADHD Attending a Summer Treatment Program. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 13(2), 99-112.

DuPaul, G., & White, G. (2006). ADHD: Behavioral, Educational and Medication Interventions. Education Digest, 71(7), 57-60.

Ibrahim, E. (2002). Rates of adherence to pharmacological treatment among children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Human Psychopharmacology, 17(2), 225-231.

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