Spacing Effect and Testing Effect
In different circumstances, tests are not applied frequently, like once for each set of contents or at the end of the term or semester for example. In addition, both teachers and students tend to see them as a bother. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that tests positively affect the long-term memory (long-term information retention), suggesting that individuals tested for one kind of material, with successful recall, will better remember this material in the near future. Researchers have called this phenomenon the “testing effect”.
In the case of complex generalization, perceptual features are likely to be forgotten, whereas the underlying abstract structure is likely to be remembered to a greater degree. Indeed, the most basic mechanisms of memory (i.e., forgetting) may be the same mechanisms that support our most sophisticated forms of learning (i.e., complex generalization).
For example, the sentence “the nurse and the doctor go to the hospital,” is easier to remember than “the artist and the driver go to the supermarket”. This is because, in the first sentence, nurse, doctor, and hospital are linked, making it easier to remember. It’s also been theorized that repetition over time primes individual’s to make connections to information or words in sentences. The spacing effect can be used effectively by individuals, to better learn and retain information. Improving our memory and learning throughout our life, can greatly help us succeed. By capitalizing on the cognitive benefits of the spacing effect, and incorporating effective learning processes, we can better ourselves, our decision-making abilities, and our learning capabilities (Vlach, H. A., & Sandhofer, 2012).
Vlach, H. A., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2012). Distributing Learning Over Time: The Spacing Effect in Children’s Acquisition and Generalization of Science Concepts. Child Development,83(4), 1137-1144. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01781.x
Kornell, N. (2009). Optimising learning using flashcards: Spacing is more effective than cramming. Applied Cognitive Psychology,23(9), 1297-1317. doi:10.1002/acp.1537
Fennis, Bob; Stroebe, Wolfgang (2010). The Psychology of Advertising. Hove: Psychology Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0203853238.
The Spacing Effect: How to Improve Learning and Maximize Retention. (2018, December 31). Retrieved from https://fs.blog/2018/12/spacing-effect/
Delaney, P. F., Verkoeijen, P. P., & Spirgel, A. (2010). Spacing and Testing Effects. Psychology of Learning and Motivation The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, 63-147. doi:10.1016/s0079-7421(10)53003-2